What Happened to Egypt’s Pharaohs?

What Happened to Egypt’s Pharaohs?

Ethan Miller/Getty Images

Ancient Egypt was a magnificent civilization, until it suddenly vanished in the sixth century B.C.
From the April 2011 Trumpet Print Edition

The winds of revolution sweeping Egypt today aren’t the first that have ravaged that nation.

Most history textbooks open with a description of ancient Egypt as a towering civilization that, for more than a millennium, led mankind’s intellectual, political and cultural advancement. Each year, millions of visitors marvel at the pyramids jutting from Egypt’s dunes, at the mummified remains of the ancient pharaohs, and at Egypt’s mountains of other artifacts and relics—all testimony to the power the civilization once held.

But perhaps the most striking facet of Egyptian history is its precipitous fall.

Modern-day Egyptians, after all, are not descended from those ancient societies that constructed the Giza Pyramid Complex, the Great Sphinx, and other momentous structures. They have no connection to the early dynastic peoples that pioneered new frontiers in science, mathematics and art, and that once dominated the civilized world. Today’s Egypt is inhabited and ruled by Arabs; before that it was under British control; before that it was controlled by various Muslim peoples, including the Ottomans; before that it was the Romans; before that the Greeks; and before that the Persians.

Egypt has resurfaced intermittently in the past 2,500 years of world history, but always as the territory of a foreign nation or empire. What happened to ancient Egypt—the unique and independent civilization established by the pharaohs, the nation that once reigned over mankind? That Egypt has clearly vanished.

Don’t you wonder why?

Who Were Native Egyptians?

There is a great deal of confusion among historians about the race of native Egyptians. Archeological evidence, ancient Egyptian art and hieroglyphics indicate the presence in ancient Egypt of both Semitic (Caucasian) people and Negroid peoples (including various shades of brown).

In the 19th and 20th centuries, when artifacts were uncovered indicating the presence of black pharaohs, prejudiced historians and scientists generally downplayed the notion that a great Nubian civilization had once existed in Egypt. Today, however, many Egyptologists recognize that the indigenous peoples of ancient Egypt originated from the same racial strain as their counterparts in Africa.

In February 2008, the National Geographic cover story spotlighted the substantial historical and archeological evidence indicating the presence of a predominantly black civilization in early Egypt: “Only in the past four decades have archaeologists resurrected their story—and come to recognize that the black pharaohs didn’t appear out of nowhere. They sprang from a robust African civilization that had flourished on the southern banks of the Nile for 2,500 years, going back at least as far as the first Egyptian dynasty” (emphasis mine throughout).

Moreover, scientists have also investigated the remains of the early Egyptians, including their dna, bone structure and teeth, and concluded that early Egyptians are of the same racial strain as the black people of Africa. Even the historical record indicates early Egypt was settled, at least partially, by people of black skin. Among the ancient historians who recognized this fact was Herodotus, the fifth-century Greek who referred to the ancient Egyptians as “melanchroes,” meaning black-skinned.

The science indicating the presence of a black civilization in Egypt supports the biblical account of the origins of the early Egyptians. In the book of Psalms, for example, mostly written around the 10th century b.c., the psalmists often recall the history of the Israelites in Egypt. In Psalm 105:23, for example, King David writes, “Israel also came into Egypt; and Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham.” In Psalm 78, Asaph remembers God besieging the Egyptians with plagues, writing that God “smote all the firstborn in Egypt; the chief of their strength in the tabernacles of Ham” (verse 51).

At the time of King David, Egypt was known as the “land of Ham.” The Bible clearly reveals Ham as Noah’s son, the husband of a black woman and the father of the black race. More specifically, the Bible indicates that the ancient Egyptians descend from Ham’s son Mizraim (Genesis 10:6). The Hebrew word everywhere used in the Old Testament for Egypt is Mizraim. In fact, the Revised Standard Version identifies “the sons of Ham” in Genesis 10:6 as “Cush, Egypt, Put, and Canaan.”

So when it comes to ancient Egypt, science and the Bible agree: Early Egypt, like the rest of Africa, was largely comprised of blacks, descended from Ham, father of the black race!

But what of the wealth of archeological evidence, especially art, that clearly reveals the presence in ancient Egypt of a Semitic people?

The White Egyptians

Once again we must turn to God for the answer. Any person who has read the first five books of the Bible will recall Egypt’s prominent role in the events surrounding the development of ancient Israel. Abraham, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Jacob’s 12 sons and their descendants—the Bible reveals that all these men lived in Egypt at some point in their lives, and played a crucial role in early Egyptian history.

In other words, Abraham and his descendants—all Caucasian—had a decisive presence in and influence over ancient Egyptian civilization!

Consider Abraham. In Genesis 12, Abram relocates from Chaldea to Canaan. When a famine arises in Canaan, Abram is told to move to Egypt. During his stint in Egypt, which could have been a few years, Abram had extensive contact with the pharaoh and the upper echelon of Egypt. For example, verse 16 says that the pharaoh “entreated Abram well … and he had sheep, and oxen, and he asses, and menservants, and maidservants, and she asses, and camels.”

Hailing from the land of Chaldea, which was known for its advanced understanding of science and mathematics, Abraham—as Jewish historian Josephus recorded—was an exceptional scientist, mathematician and astronomer. He even shared this knowledge with his Egyptian friends. Josephus recorded, “For whereas the Egyptians were formerly addicted to different customs … Abram conferred with each of them …. [He] communicated to them arithmetic, and delivered to them the science of astronomy; for, before Abram came into Egypt, they were unacquainted with those parts of learning …” (Antiquities, I, viii, 2).

Abram had a powerful influence on Egypt. In fact, in the 20th century b.c., Abram was largely responsible for equipping ancient Egypt with the knowledge that resulted in Egypt’s emergence as the intellectual giant of the time!

A little more than two centuries later, Abraham’s great-grandson Joseph ended up living in Egypt. The Bible reveals that he too had a decisive influence on ancient Egyptian civilization. The fascinating story of Joseph’s journey from being thrown in a pit by his brothers and then sold into slavery to eventually become a prominent figure in Pharaoh’s household appears in Genesis 37 through 40.

In Genesis 41, Pharaoh rewards Joseph for interpreting his dream. He promises Joseph, “Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater than thou. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt. … And Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of Egypt” (verses 39-46).

Read the whole passage—it’s remarkable. Basically, the pharaoh gave Joseph, an Israelite, the keys to the Egyptian empire!

Joseph became part of the royal family of Egypt. And in the years following his promotion as vice president, it was Joseph’s leadership—particularly his economic policies—that made Egypt the wealthiest and most powerful empire on Earth.

In Genesis 44 though 47, we read of how Joseph’s 12 brothers and his father, Israel, relocated to Egypt and settled in its most fertile region, the land of Goshen. Under Pharaoh’s protection and living on the Nile delta, these families expanded rapidly. As the Israelites’ numbers quickly rose, they made vital contributions to Egyptian civilization, with some, thanks to Joseph’s good word, even taking up positions within Egypt’s government. Evidence suggests the Israelites helped Egypt with some of its largest building projects. In fact, some research compellingly suggests that Job (Khufu in Egyptian, Cheops in Greek), an Israelite, was the mastermind behind the construction of the Great Pyramid.

In the 15th century b.c., when it came time for the Israelites to depart Egypt, it is estimated that they numbered between 2 and 3 million. Truly, Israel at this point was a nation living within a nation, a people within a people. This explains why Egyptian historical records show the existence of both white and black people in the nation.

Truly, the history of ancient Egypt is phenomenal. Thanks largely to God’s presence in its history—from the knowledge originally taught the Egyptians by Abraham, to the financial prowess and quality leadership of Joseph, to the labor, organization and farming practices of the Israelites—ancient Egypt emerged as the magnificent civilization we know it to have been.

So then—what happened?

Egypt’s Sudden Disappearance

The 10 plagues and the annihilation of the Egyptian army during the Exodus of the Israelites in the 15th century b.c. left Egypt demoralized and debilitated, politically and culturally. It did, however, recover much of its former glory; the dynasties of the pharaohs were perpetuated, and Egypt reemerged as a regional force and a civilization rich in culture and material possessions.

It wasn’t until the sixth century b.c. that Egypt fell from the heights of global prominence—never to return. Its demise began early in that century when it tangled with the Babylonian armies of King Nebuchadnezzar. Within a few decades, Egypt was being attacked by the Persians—the inheritors of the Babylonian Empire—and had fallen completely. When Pharaoh Psamatik iii died after battling the Persians in the battle of Pelusium in 525 b.c., wrote George Rawlinson, “thus perished … the last of the long line of pharaohs, which commencing with Menes … had ruled Egypt, as a great independent monarchy, for not less than 20 centuries” (History of Ancient Egypt).

Despite periodic insurrections by native Egyptians, the ancient Egyptian civilization never fully recovered from the Persian invasion. Beginning in the sixth century b.c., tides of foreigners began to settle in Egypt: Seafaring Greeks sailed in from the Aegean, Jews came from Jerusalem, and Syrians from the northern Levant. Within a couple of centuries, Egypt was a cauldron of races. In the fourth century b.c., Persia’s grip on Egypt slipped, and the reins passed from Persia to Greece, first to Alexander the Great, then Ptolemy and the Ptolemaic Dynasty.

Around 30 b.c., Egypt fell under the control of the Romans, where it remained until the early seventh century, when the Muslim conquest of Egypt began. Between the 7th and 19th centuries, Egypt was ruled by various Muslim governments, including the Ottoman Turks. By the end of the 19th century, Egypt was controlled by Britain, which in the early 20th century turned it over to the Arabs.

As this survey of Egypt’s history shows, Egypt never fully recovered from the Babylonian and Persian invasions of the sixth century b.c. It never again existed as an independent, world-ruling power!

A Base Nation

The key to understanding events in Egypt in the sixth century b.c.—and to understanding Egypt’s disastrous fall from global prominence—is found in the book of Ezekiel.

In chapters 29 and 30, we read of God sending the Prophet Ezekiel to deliver a crucial message to Egypt. “Set thy face against Pharaoh king of Egypt,” God instructs Ezekiel, “and prophesy against him, and against all Egypt” (Ezekiel 29:2). The biblical record shows that Ezekiel was dispatched to Egypt in the early sixth century, and that he delivered his message to Pharaoh Apries (Hophra in Hebrew), the fourth king of the 26th dynasty of Egypt.

Under the rule of Apries, Egypt was a powerful, influential civilization. In fact, Egypt’s presence was so impressive, Apries, like his forefathers, thought himself king of the world, as powerful as God Himself. Pharaoh Apries considered the Nile River, the source of Egypt’s material greatness, to be his own creation, and he declared himself the god of the Nile.

Drunk on arrogance, Apries had lost sight of Egypt’s history with God and the Israelites. So God dispatched Ezekiel to warn Apries of where his egotism was leading and to tell him that God would expose and destroy him, and that in Egypt’s devastation the world would learn the ultimate source of Egypt’s power. In verse 3, God tells Ezekiel: “Speak, and say, Thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers, which hath said, My river is mine own, and I have made it for myself.”

God was going to show Pharaoh Apries exactly who created the Nile and gave Egypt all its power. In verse 4, God tells the pharaoh, “I will put hooks in thy jaws, and I will cause the fish of thy rivers to stick unto thy scales, and I will bring thee up out of the midst of thy rivers, and all the fish of thy rivers shall stick unto thy scales.” God said He would expose Pharaoh Apries as a fraud—much like He had exposed the gods of Egypt during the 10 plagues nearly a thousand years earlier!

God continues His warning in verses 8-10: “Therefore thus saith the Lord God; Behold, I will bring a sword upon thee, and cut off man and beast out of thee. And the land of Egypt shall be desolate and waste; and they shall know that I am the Lord: because he hath said, The river is mine, and I have made it. Behold, therefore I am against thee, and against thy rivers, and I will make the land of Egypt utterly waste and desolate, from the tower of Syene even unto the border of Ethiopia.”

In verse 19, Ezekiel even reveals to Apries that he would be attacked by the armies of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. In scripture after scripture of chapters 29 and 30, God warns the pharaoh that Egypt’s destruction at the hands of the Babylonians and Persians would be so disastrous that it would never fully recover!

Then, in verse 15, God makes a prophecy that would change Egypt forever. Regarding Egypt’s future after the destruction, He says explicitly: “It shall be the basest of the kingdoms; neither shall it exalt itself any more above the nations: for I will diminish them, that they shall no more rule over the nations.”

God couldn’t have been clearer: He promised that after the sixth century b.c., Egypt would never again be a major ruling power!

Prince of Egypt

In addition to Ezekiel 29:15, another scripture is key to understanding Egypt’s sudden demise in the sixth century, specifically the sudden disappearance of Egypt’s ruling dynasty of native pharaohs.

Although Egypt would eventually recover from the damage inflicted by the Babylonians and the Persians, God says in Ezekiel 30:13 that “there shall be no more a prince of the land of Egypt ….”

This, as Bible commentaries explain and historical records confirm, is an explicit prophecy that after its destruction in the sixth century b.c., Egypt would never again be governed by a native prince!

This astounding scripture explains the sudden disappearance of Egypt’s ancient pharaohs!

In the early sixth century, Pharaoh Amiries was overthrown by Amesis, a commoner who was not from the line of the pharaohs. After Amesis, Egypt was ruled by Pharaoh Pamaitic iii. After the defeat of the Egyptian armies in the battle of Pelusium in 525 b.c. and the death of Pamaitic iii, the Egyptian monarchy became Persian. After the Persian conquest, the Greeks dominated Egypt beginning with Alexander the Great in the fourth century b.c. When Alexander died, Egypt was ruled by Ptolemy, who established a Greek dynasty of pharaohs. That dynasty ended in 30 b.c., when Egypt fell into Rome’s orbit. Truly, from the sixth century b.c., a native Egyptian has never—not once—ruled over Egypt!

Stunning Prophecies

Take a moment and think on these stunning prophecies.

For nearly 2,000 years before the sixth century b.c., Egypt was not only a regional force, but a pulsating civilization. Culturally and intellectually, ancient Egyptian mathematicians, scientists and astronomers were on the vanguard of innovation; agriculturally, ancient Egypt exported grains throughout the Middle East and the Mediterranean; the ancient Egyptians constructed edifices that 4,000 years later still dazzle engineers. Politically, Egypt’s ruling class was the most enduring and impressive monarchy in the world.

Then, all of a sudden in the sixth centuryb.c., Egypt vanished as a world power—and never reclaimed its position! Why? Because, as we discovered in Ezekiel 29 and 30, God said that after the sixth century b.c., Egypt would remain the “basest of kingdoms,” a nation still alive, yet incapable of “exalt[ing] itself any more above the nations.”

Today, each of these prophecies has been fulfilled, and we have 2,500 years of recorded history to prove it.

Truly, Egypt has played a pivotal role in human history—as a living testament to the existence of God!

The End of the Dollar

From the March 2011 Trumpet Print Edition

In January, Chinese President Hu Jintao was wined and dined with a lavish state banquet at the White House and other official ceremonies usually reserved for America’s closest friends and allies. Why? One must be very polite when entertaining your banker—even if you don’t like him and he doesn’t like you.

Yet there is another more ominous but closely related reason.

For years, China has warned America that its support for the dollar was not unconditional. The warnings fell on deaf ears. Confident that China was virtually forced to lend money to America, Washington embraced a borrow-and-spend policy that would have destroyed any other currency.

Then last year, when it became clear that America could not borrow enough money to pay the bills—it crossed the Rubicon, declaring that the laws of paper money no longer applied to the mighty dollar: America would just print whatever money it needed to pay the bills. Federal Reserve Chairman Benjamin Bernanke declared he would start by conjuring $900 billion—75 percent of America’s borrowing needs—out of thin air.

The world was shocked that America would so abuse the world’s reserve currency. France, Germany, Russia and China were outraged. But Americans wagered that the world is too caught in the dollar trap to do anything about it.

So far, this strategy has worked out pretty well for America. With several European countries falling apart, the dollar has firmed up, and safe-haven money has continued to flow into America. But signs are, that is beginning to change.

Europe’s Sugar Daddy

As the Washington Post wrote, “[S]trange things are happening in Europe—none stranger than the emergence of China as the Continent’s sugar daddy” (January 16).

Wait—wasn’t China America’s “sugar daddy”? Well, just follow the yen. In July 2009, China held $939 billion worth of U.S. treasury debt. More than a year later China’s holdings have fallen to $895 billion. This is big news—and surely isn’t lost on Washington. For more than a year, America’s most important creditor has stopped lending new money to America. Instead, China is investing its money, and its confidence, in Europe.

Today, Europe matters more to China than any place in the world. With 400 million First World consumers and the world’s largest economy, the European Union is by far China’s biggest export market.

It is a reciprocal relationship, too. China now directly holds over $900 billion worth of eurozone national debt. In Greece, China is investing billions more as it attempts to build the Mediterranean port city of Piraeus into the “Rotterdam of the south,” and create a modern-day silk road linking Chinese factories with consumers across Europe and North Africa.

Most importantly, China has thrown its weight behind the euro.

In a recent trip to Europe, Vice Premier Li Keqiang did nothing less than transform Europe’s economic picture. Just as commentators were predicting the collapse of the eurozone, Li—a favorite to become China’s next prime minister—appeared to throw China’s $2.85 trillion worth of foreign exchange reserves into Europe’s breach, promising to be a committed and responsible long-term investor in Europe. icbc bank, China’s largest lender, quickly followed suit, announcing its intention to move full force into the eurozone. It will open its first-ever branches in France, Spain, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands. It has already opened offices in Frankfurt and Luxembourg.

Li’s support is already paying dividends in Europe. With interest rates coming down from recent highs and successful debt auctions, Spain and Portugal got a welcome taste of what several billion euros’ worth of Chinese “sugar” can do.

Of course, it doesn’t come free. Li publicized China’s desire that the EU relax restrictions on high-tech exports to China and develop trade relations. In addition, China wants access to Europe’s defense companies.

Europe seems all too willing to do business. The EU’s Foreign Minister Catherine Ashton called for abolishing Europe’s arms embargo with China. Reportedly, American officials, who have to deal with a rapidly growing Chinese military presence in the Pacific, are furious.

What Will Replace the Dollar?

It was what Hu Jintao told the Wall Street Journal just prior to his arrival in Washington, however, that should have all Americans preparing for one massive sugar crash. He said the dollar should no longer be the world’s reserve currency. It is a “product of the past,” he said. It is time for a more fair and balanced system.

What does China think should replace the dollar? Hu himself said it wouldn’t be the yuan. What does that leave? Follow the sugar.

“The euro will overcome the region’s deficit crisis,” assured Song Zhe, China’s ambassador to Europe, back in December. The cementing of the euro’s status will “promote the building of a diversified global currency system,” he said.

Remember: When anyone talks about “diversifying” the global currency system, by definition it means ditching the current system—which is the dollar.

And China isn’t alone in shifting support to the eurozone. Japan has also announced that it will step up its efforts to back Europe by purchasing eurozone debt. According to Reuters, Japan will purchase 20 percent of soon-to-be-issued Eurobonds. The Eurobonds would be jointly issued and backed by all members of the eurozone—creating a new debt market that will directly compete with U.S. treasuries. Where will Japan get the money? As America’s second most important lender, it has a whole stack of treasuries it would probably love to “diversify” out of.

If the world wants out of the U.S. dollar, there is only one viable paper alternative: Europe.

According to Li Daokui, an academic member of the Chinese central bank’s monetary policy committee, Americans only have months to prepare—while Europe works to get its act together. “For now, market attention is still on Europe and for the coming 6 to 12 months, it will not shift to the United States,” said Li on December 8. “But we should be clear in our minds that the fiscal situation in the United States is much worse than in Europe. In one or two years, when the European debt situation stabilizes, attention of financial markets will definitely shift to the United States. At that time, U.S. treasury bonds and the dollar will experience considerable declines.”

Strange things are happening in Europe. Now you know why. The international monetary system set up at Bretton Woods in 1944 is on the verge of breaking down, and the dollar will soon be fighting for its survival as the world’s reserve currency.

To Our Family in the United Church of God

From the March 2011 Trumpet Print Edition

This is the most urgent time in history, and God’s people have a big job to do!

For years, Herbert W. Armstrong proved to us from the Bible that the United States would fall, that Europe would unite, that Germany would rise, that the nations of Asia would come together.

Today we see everything he talked about happening before our eyes.

Read the headlines. The U.S. is a spent force. China is becoming a powerhouse and allying with a resurgent Russia. And look at Europe. There you see a consortium of nations building a single federal government, using a single currency, just as Mr. Armstrong said. Right now, it faces deep economic crisis. European leaders are contemplating radical measures to address it. And the strongest nation—the nation everyone is looking to for answers—is exactly who Mr. Armstrong and Bible prophecy said it would be: Germany.

For years, time and again Mr. Armstrong prophesied of a unified Germany leading a European alliance of 10 kings. Watch closely—because that is exactly what is about to emerge from the crisis in Europe! And as prophecy warns, that power is going to dominate the world during the worst time of suffering in history, the Great Tribulation.

This world needs this warning from God now more than ever. Now is the time God’s Church must be blasting that message!

That is exactly what the Philadelphia Church of God is doing, as vigorously as we possibly can.

But sadly, tragically, most of God’s people today are not supporting that effort.

The vast majority have lost their urgency just as it is needed most. They have lost their understanding of why the Church. As Mr. Armstrong repeatedly taught us, we are not here for our own salvation. God has called a select few today out of season expressly to do a work. That is our purpose.

You know that God blessed the work abundantly under Mr. Armstrong. Especially in Mr. Armstrong’s final years, when he was physically most frail, God used him powerfully, miraculously—and all of us who supported him—to loudly proclaim His message throughout the world: The Plain Truth circulation soared over 8 million; The World Tomorrow aired on over 400 stations; Mr. Armstrong delivered the gospel personally to audiences and leaders all over the world. The fruits show conclusively that the living Christ empowered him and the work.

Today, though, the vast majority of the people who once backed God’s apostle are divided, bickering, accusing, politicking. As the Apostle Paul once wrote, “It hath been declared unto me of you, my brethren … that there are contentions among you” (1 Corinthians 1:11). This was a problem in the first-century Church—and it is a massive problem today.

Is Christ divided? Paul demanded (verse 13).

Where is the work? The time of Christ’s return is closer than ever—and He is preparing! Those of His people who have remained faithful, Christ is actively leading to get readyto prepare for the marriage of the Lamb—and to warn this world!

Time is fast running out—and Christ earnestly, passionately wants you to be of that number! Will you zealously get behind the work Christ is doing today?

As much as it frustrates and wounds you to see the church you have been a part of splintering—as much as it pains all of us to see bitter division among God’s people—it grieves God far more.

God wants His people deeply, beautifully unified. David sang, “Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity!” (Psalm 133:1). Paul wrote that all of God’s people should remain “in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel” (Philippians 1:27). Christ prayed that we would all be “one, even as we [Father and Son] are one: I in them, and thou in me, that they may be madeperfect in one” (John 17:22-23).

That is the only way the great work of God can be accomplished by a “little flock” that humanly has “little strength” (Luke 12:32; Revelation 3:8). That is a Spirit-led unity that is only possible among God’s people! That is the unity Christ and His wife will enjoy forever!

If we are not building and living that unity with God and with each othertoday,we must repent quickly—or we will not be part of that unified God Family forever!

Looking at the Church as a whole today, how much of that unity do you see? The fact that there is such precious little should be a source of deep concern and shame to God’s people. God’s work today would be a hundred or a thousand times more powerful if all of God’s people were energetically fulfilling their exalted calling as God’s firstfruits and Christ’s bride!

Do you know why there is so much division among the body of believers that once did such a powerful work for God?

When Paul encountered division among God’s people, he dealt with it forcefully. “Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak thesame thing, and that there be no divisions among you; but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment” (1 Corinthians 1:10).

When Mr. Armstrong was on the scene, and he encountered division, he too used the authority God gave him to confront it! And we can all thank God that he did. You might remember the liberalization of the Church in the 1970s. It was an ominous preview of what would happen after Mr. Armstrong died. But in that instance, Mr. Armstrong was still around to set things right. He submitted to Christ, the Head of the Church, and Christ used him to get the Church back on track. And look at the results: The Church enjoyed several years of the most explosive growth in its history.

A lot of God’s people today can recognize what a disaster happened once Mr. Armstrong was gone. But far too many have drawn a completely erroneous conclusion. Surely you have heard, if not come to believe, that the problem was the one-man government structure of the Church. That is a diabolical lie. That government structure was a beautiful, wonderful blessing—for as long as that one man submitted to Jesus Christ, the Head of the Church! (Ephesians 1:22-23; 4:15; 5:23-24; Colossians 1:18). Christ never could have solved the problems of the 1970s without that government. The government of God produces good and pleasant unity—it produces a people of one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel—it produces spiritual growth in every last person who embraces it!

The problems that seized the Church after Mr. Armstrong died came not because of one-man rule, but because the leader did not follow Christ (Colossians 2:19). Failure to submit to God’s government always produces oppression and conflict. The continued fracturing among and within all the churches of God that have splintered off the Worldwide Church of God is proof that any government without Christ at the Head is doomed to fail.

The ministers who formed your organization wanted to be “United.” But because they rejected God’s government and established a worldly form of government, they wrote that organization’s epitaph before it even started.

The tragedies within God’s Church over these past 25 years have spiritually wounded all of us. Many—bruised, exhausted, disillusioned—have decided to turn their back on their calling, and have given up.

But God has said, “I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee” (Hebrews 13:5).

Every single Church member who has received the Holy Spirit, God has intense, yearning love for. We can be “confident of this very thing, that he which hath begun a good work in you will perform it until the day of Jesus Christ” (Philippians 1:6). God finishes what He starts. Even when we fail Him, He does not give up on us. He chastens us when we need it—in a concerned effort to turn us around (Hebrews 12:5-11). Thank God for that chastening!

Even the Tribulation is loving correction from God—for the world and even for those of His people who are lukewarm. Read Revelation 3:14-22 for the message God has for the last era of His Church before Christ’s return. It is clear from this and other passages that many of God’s people will not be protected in a place of safety during the Tribulation—and even in the context of that nightmarish reality God reminds us: “As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten:be zealous therefore, andrepent” (verse 19).

Do you realize that God’s rebuke, spoken of in this verse, is coming now—before the Tribulation? God loves His people and is pleading for repentance now. Anyone who is zealous and repents today will not need the chastening of the Tribulation—and God will protect him or her from it. That is our earnest prayer for you.

Remember, judgment is on the house of God today (1 Peter 4:17). For those who possess God’s Spirit, everything is at stake. Eternal life hangs in the balance. That is why God is so deeply concerned.

God is the father in Luke 15, searching the horizon for any sign of his son. “[W]hen [the son] was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him. … [And] the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet: And bring hither the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat, and be merry: For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found.”

Survey Shows What Makes Children Happy

Survey Shows What Makes Children Happy


It’s not money, TV or the latest gadgets.

The key to childhood satisfaction is living in a stable, two-parent family, where Mom and Dad are married and the family communicates regularly, according to a survey funded by the British government published on February 28.

“Young people do not associate their material situation with their life satisfaction,” states a summary of the Understanding Society survey’s findings. Instead, “not living with both natural parents has a greater negative impact on a young person’s life satisfaction than their material situation.” Money and things cannot make up for the lack of a happy, stable home.

The report also found that happy homes have married parents. “After controlling for a range of characteristics, cohabiting people are significantly less happy in their relationships than married people,” states the summary. Elsewhere it notes that “children (aged 10-15) are happier with their family situation if their parents are happier with their relationship with each other.”

So setting up a family God’s way leads to happiness for everyone involved!

While the study found that time in front of the tv had no effect on a child’s happiness, it found that a declining family ritual does. “[E]ating an evening meal together as a family is important,” the study says. “Children who eat an evening meal with their family at least three times a week are substantially more likely to report being completely happy with their family situation than children who never eat with their family, or who eat together less than three times a week.”

As the Trumpet has pointed out on severaloccasions, eating a family meal is becoming a lost tradition in Western society as all members of the family either snack on the go or gather in front of the television.

An evening meal is a time where family members can catch up with each other, talk about their day and discuss the challenges individuals may be facing. And the Understanding Society survey shows that this communication is another important part of a child’s happiness.

Children who talked with their parents about important matters at least occasionally and quarreled with them less than once a week had over a 70 percent chance of being completely happy with their family life. However, children that quarreled frequently with both parents and hardly ever discussed important matters with them had a less than 30 percent chance of being completely happy with their family life.

The survey does not state this, but it would be a reasonable guess that these children that often quarrel share few family meals.

These results are part of the first wave of results to be published from the Understanding Society survey that will follow 100,000 people in 40,000 households over the next 20 years. The survey has an initial budget of £15.5 million making it the “largest single investment in academic social research resources,” according to the Guardian.

The study also shows that keeping a marriage happy is not easy—especially after children have arrived. The summary states that “for both men and women, happiness declines with the duration of the relationship, with the decline being steeper for women,” and that “childless couples are happiest with their relationships and those with a preschool child are least happy, though happiness increases with the age of the youngest child.”

Maintaining a happy marriage isn’t easy, especially with young children around. But it creates an environment in which children thrive. For more vital information on the God-ordained purpose of this vital institution, read our free booklet Why Marriage! Soon Obsolete?

Libya and Ethiopia Reveal Iran’s Military Strategy

Libya and Ethiopia Reveal Iran’s Military Strategy

Getty Images

From the April 2011 Trumpet Print Edition

What is the immediate future of Libya and Ethiopia? We must go to the Bible for the answer—you will find it no place else.

Just look at what has happened in the first couple of months of this year: 1) The Tunisian government has fallen, probably into the hands of the radical Muslims; 2) Lebanon has fallen to the Hezbollah terrorists, controlled by Iran—the number-one terrorist-sponsoring nation in the world by far; 3) the government of Egypt has fallen, and its replacement will form some kind of an alliance with Iran, the king of the south. We have been prophesying this for about 20 years!

Now the whole world can see it happening very dramatically!

As usual, many of the Western world’s leaders see what is happening in Egypt as good news. They fail to see the strength of Iran and the Muslim Brotherhood, and some of them fail to see the broken will of America—which all the Middle East leaders see!

The government of Yemen is very shaky.

All these events are bad news for America and Israel. But they show us almost precisely where we are in Bible prophecy!

Now let me illustrate a new and stunning piece of the puzzle about the Middle East.

The whole scenario is explained in Daniel 11:40-44. These verses reveal what is unfolding in the Middle East, Europe and Asia—the most critical prophecy of the next few years.

Until now, I have not understood much about why the two nations of Libya and Ethiopia are mentioned in verse 43, along with Egypt. These two nations are thekeythat unlocks the strategy of radical Islam. That strategy is going to shake the U.S. and Europe to their foundations!

We are about to be flooded with bad news. But it is all concluded by the best news you have ever heard!

Soon you will see the prophesied 10 European kings unite into the Holy Roman Empire that is going to clash with radical Islam, or the king of the south. Europe understands what the U.S. does not: Radical Islam must be stopped! And the stronger leaders know it won’t be done through negotiation!

Here is what I wrote in the Trumpet magazine, July 1993—nearly 18 years ago: “So when does the king of the south ‘push’ at the king of the north? It must happen after the book of Daniel was revealed to Herbert W. Armstrong in this end time. Daniel 12:9 tells us the time of the end begins when Daniel was revealed. [The book can only be understood in this end time (Daniel 12:4, 9).] So the king of the south must arise after Daniel was revealed to God’s end-time Church—specifically to Herbert W. Armstrong. These verses point to a king of the south that is yet future. And I believe all indications point to radical Islam, headed by Iran, as this king.”

How could I have known so long ago that Iran would be the king of the south and clash with the Holy Roman Empire? Because of what was happening in Iran and the Middle East, coupled with Bible prophecy. It is time for all of us to wake up to what is happening in this world. We are facing the greatest catastrophe ever on planet Earth.

What happened in January and February of this year was only a small dress rehearsal of what is about to explode in the Middle East! The whole world will be dragged into this unparalleled crisis! Iran is about to get the nuclear bomb. It is the greatest terrorist-sponsoring nation in the world—no other country even comes close. And here is the worst part of all: Iranian leaders and many of their people believe the 12th imam (their version of the Messiah) is about to return. They think his return can be hastened by creating chaos!

You can create a lot of chaos with many terrorists and nuclear bombs. Never in this modern age has a powerful nation held such extremely dangerous beliefs. That makes Iran a terrifying danger far removed from what we have ever faced before!

No other nation on this Earth brings such certain and deadly danger to this world! It is on a path thatmustlead to war!

Egypt’s Fate

Egypt adjoins Israel’s southern border, geographically. That is one big reason why the people of Israel fear what is happening in Egypt.

Here is another quote from my July 1993 Trumpet article: “Islamic extremism is gaining power at a frightening pace in Egypt also. There is a prophecy that indicates Egypt will probably fall to Islam—or be strongly influenced by Islam. Let’s read Daniel 11:40 and 42: ‘And at the time of the end shall the king of the south push at him: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over. … He shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries: and the land of Egypt shall not escape.’ This verse indicates Egypt will be allied with the king of the south. That is probably the reason Egypt is also attacked and taken captive! I believe this prophecy in Daniel 11:42 indicates you are about to see a radical change in Egyptian politics!”

The Holy Roman Empire, led by Germany and the Vatican, is going to wage war against radical Islam with all the power it can muster. That one whirlwind blow will destroy the king of the south.

Since I wrote that, Egypt has been shaken repeatedly by Iran and radical Islam. Anwar Sadat, the president of Egypt before Hosni Mubarak, was killed by the Muslim Brotherhood—the strongest opponent of Mubarak today and closely tied to Iran. Now that radical, violent organization is about to get much more influence and control in Egyptian politics. The Brotherhood has been less violent the last 30 years because of the strong leadership of Mubarak. But now he is gone. Egypt’s close relationship with America is history!

The Hamas terrorists of the Gaza Strip are the Palestinian counterparts to the Muslim Brotherhood! This terrorist Brotherhood could get control of Egypt. It could be very similar to how Hamas got control of Gaza.

Here is what the Christian Science Monitor wrote January 25: “[T]hey’re seeking the ouster of President Hosni Mubarak, who ascended to the presidency after Sadat’s assassination in 1981. A popular uprising in Tunisia may have just pushed out President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali [That did happen.] …. But activists, political analysts and average people in Egypt insist that something crucial shifted for Egypt today. Egyptian political scientist Mustapha Kamel Al Sayyid predicts that now the dam has broken, protests will continue. ‘The reservoir of discontent is huge,’ he says. … ‘[T]here’s a revolution coming,’ [a protester added]” (emphasis mine throughout).

The future is quite bleak for Egypt, just as your Bible prophesiedinthe book of Daniel about 600 years before the first coming of Christ!

Why won’t people believe their own Bibles?

Here is what Stratfor wrote January 4: “The most vulnerable time in Egypt is the period before Mubarak leaves the scene [when America’s government was humiliating Mubarak, our friend for the last 30 years]. … Let’s consider for a moment what an Islamist Egypt would mean. The Mediterranean, which has been a strategically quiet region, would come to life. The United States would have to reshape its strategy, and Israel would have to refocus its strategic policy. Turkey’s renaissance would have to take seriously a new Islamic power in the Mediterranean. Most important, an Islamist Egypt would give dramatic impetus to radical Islam throughout the Arab world. One of the linchpins of American and European policy in the region would be gone in a crucial part of the world. The transformation of Egypt into an Islamist country would be the single most significant event we could imagine in the Islamic world, beyond an Iranian bomb.”

Stratforplaces the move of Egypt into the radical Islamic camp as more deadly than anythingexcept Iran’s getting the nuclear bomb—which it is about to do!

That is exactly what is going to happen inside Egypt—according to Bible prophecy.

President Mubarak resisted the radical Muslims in their violence toward Israel and other nations. He was a powerful ally in helping America, Britain and Israel in their war against terror. Mubarak fought against Iran getting the nuclear bomb.

In terms of its peace, Israel is going to lose its best friend in the Middle East—Egypt. The Jewish nation is in grave danger! The Jews know it and many of them blame the U.S. for much of this Egyptian crisis.

President Mubarak exerted the power needed inside Egypt to control his strongest opponent, the violent Muslim Brotherhood. He has lived through six assassination attempts on his life.

Still our leaders seem to have no real concept of what he had to deal with every day.

In spite of Mubarak’s positive fruits, the present U.S. administration set out to humiliate him publicly from the beginning of the massive demonstrations in Egypt! Only a rebuke from Saudi Arabia slowed our government’s tactics.

No Arab country in the Middle East has done more to befriend America!

Yes, Mr. Mubarak made some serious mistakes. But America has utterly betrayed a friend of 30 years. The result? America’s influence in the Middle East has plummeted to near zero!

Why? Because we support the enemies of America and the moderate Arab states and humiliate nations that are friendly toward us. For example, the American government said nothing to support many thousands (some say millions) of dissenters in the summer of 2009 when they marched against Iranian leaders who stole their election!

America will never have another opportunity as it did with that first and most powerful wave of dissent. The brutal military has since gotten control over the dissenters, who are now more fearful.

On the other hand, the U.S. government immediately supported the dissenters in Egypt and humiliated our friend of many years, Hosni Mubarak.

The U.S. could have diplomatically spoken encouraging words to both sides.

How can we explain such a dangerous, upside-down foreign policy? Why should moderate Arab nations and Israel give any support to America? Surely, we must see how our actions negatively impact those nations in the Middle East!

The whole world is watching. America’s foreign policy is an unmitigated disaster!

In a crisis, what Arab country would now help us secure the massive amounts of oil we get from the Middle East—without which our economy would be wrecked?!

What Egyptians Really Want

Egyptian presidential elections are scheduled to be held in September 2011! What results should we expect?

Many people in the West hope to see Egypt transform into a picture of democracy and peace. But what do the Egyptian people want? Are Western leaders willing to look at the reality?

A major survey by the Pew Research Center last year showed that the people of Egypt have no interest in Western-style democracy. Theyactuallywantstrict Islamic rule.

Look at these results from the Pew poll.

Fully 85 percent of Muslims in Egypt want a strong Islamic influence in the nation’s politics.

Nearly the same number say those who leave the Muslim faith should be killed for it.

Eighty-two percent support stoning adulterers, and 77 percent think thieves should have their hands cut off.

Well over half would support segregating women from men in the workplace.

Fifty-four percent believe suicide bombings that murder civilians can be justified.

Nearly half have a “favorable view” of the terrorist group Hamas, and 3 in 10 are positive toward Hezbollah. One fifth of Egyptians even hold positive views of al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden.

Among the 18 Muslim nations Pew surveyed, Egypt had the highest unfavorable rating toward America: 82 percent of Egyptians dislike the U.S.

A powerful Mubarak was able to control or contain the more extreme views of his own people. But that dam was broken when he resigned.

No new leader could ever get the power to resist such strong beliefs of the Egyptian people. This all plays into the hands of Iran and its strong ties to the Muslim Brotherhood. What happened to Iran in 1979 is somewhat similar to what will happen in Egypt. And let’s not forget how Iran turned Gaza and Lebanon into its own terrorist arms. In each of those places, it started with a group like the Muslim Brotherhood.

We continually underestimate the power of Iran! That wealthy nation gives full, fanatical support to terrorist groups!

The people are now rejoicing in Egypt. But it is not a time for joy in America—it is a time for fear. If we don’t understand that now, we soon will!

Iran’s Strategy—U.S. and EU Nightmare

Stratfor Intelligence mentioned the Mediterranean area twice. Turkey, already an ally of Iran, is on the northern part of that strategically important sea.

Stratfor believes the U.S. and Israel will have to reshape their strategy. Stratforalso mentioned Europe. Germany and the Vatican are going to cause the whole world to reshape its Middle East strategy! Bible prophecy makes that very clear.

Most authorities overlook how these events are affecting Europe. Germany and the Vatican see the new Middle East crisis as deadly serious. The king of the north, or the Holy Roman Empire, is soon to have a strong leader who will see the danger much like Stratfor Intelligence does and will act accordingly. That too is prophesied in the Bible. (Request our booklet Germany and the Holy Roman Empire. All of our literature is free.)

Germany and the Vatican probably see Iran’s strategy better than any power outside the Middle East.

There are several Middle East nations not mentioned in Daniel 11:40-44 either by their ancient or modern names—for example, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Yemen, Pakistan, Afghanistan, etc.

But two more nations are mentioned for a reason I have not understood as I do now.

Libya and Ethiopia

“But he [the king of the north] shall have power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps” (Daniel 11:43). Why did God inspire the mentioning of Libya and Ethiopia? Every word in God’s inspired Bible has significance. God placed two nations in the same verse as Egypt for a definite reason. This verse states that Libya and Ethiopia are also going to be closely allied with Iran!

Here is how the Soncino Commentary defines at his steps: “Either joining his army, or placing themselves at his beck and call.”

The Gesenius‘ Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon defines that expression as “in his company.”

The Moffatt translation reads this way: “following in his train.”

Libyan protesters seek to topple dictator Muammar Qadhafi in February 2011. (Getty Images)

So you need to watch Libya and Ethiopia. They are about to fall under the heavy influence or control of Iran, the king of the south. That is why they are subdued in the king of the north victory.

That prophecy is easy to understand. The big question is this: Do you believe your Bible?

Why would Iran be so interested in getting some measure of control over Libya and Ethiopia? To me, the answer is intriguing.

All you need to do is get a good map of the Middle East, with the emphasis on the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Then you can see why the king of the south, or radical Islam, is so interested in an alliance with or control over these two countries (as well as Egypt and Tunisia). They are on the two seas that comprise the most important trade route in the world!

Whoever heavily influences or controls Ethiopia will undoubtedly also control the small areas of Eritrea and Djibouti on the Red Sea coastline. These areas only recently became independent of Ethiopia. Also, I believe the Bible view is that these small areas are included as a part of Ethiopia.

Controlling the Suez Canal is not enough. Egypt tried that in 1956, when Britain, France and Israel kicked it out in one attack. But what if you have radical Islamic nations along this sea trade route with real air power—including missiles?

That could give Iran virtual control of the trade through those seas. Radical Islam could stop the flow of essential oil to the U.S. and Europe!

Iran could also potentially get control of Jerusalem, its third-holiest site. I believe Jerusalem is more important to Iran than the oil is. The Islamic people have fought the Catholic Crusades for about 1,500 years over control of Jerusalem. Bible prophecy says one final crusade is about to erupt.

Iran conquering Jerusalem wouldSUDDENLYgalvanize the whole Islamic world! It would spread radical Muslim influence to many countries outside the Middle East. It could lead to dangerous rioting and terror in Europe, Asia and even America.

The soon-coming Holy Roman Empire—a superpower with 10 kings, dominated by Catholicism and led by the most deceptive and aggressive Germany ever—realizes that Arab fervor could spread like wildfire. Many Catholics consider Jerusalem their most important religious site.

If Iran gets control of that trade route, it could create enormous damage and chaos in America and Europe almost overnight. Germany and the Vatican, the heart of the Holy Roman Empire, are not going to allow the king of the south to get control of Jerusalem and the world’s number-one trade route!

I did a television program on January 27 of this year. The viewers were asked to watch Libya and Ethiopia because of new understanding I had received the previous day.

There was almost no news about Libya at that time. The nation seemed stable. Less than one month later, Libya’s government was about to be overthrown, or a civil war was beginning.

We believe that the new understanding we received about Libya was a miracle. We also believe thetimingof when we received that understanding wasamiracle.

Such miracles are not just coincidence.

You need to continue to watch for Libya and Ethiopia to make a severe and rapid turn into the radical Islamic camp.

You also need to watch closely what we speak and write about Bible prophecy.

The king of the south is going to push at the king of the north, probably from its trade route power. That push will be a dramatic act of war! The Holy Roman Empire will respond with an all-out whirlwind attack—and Iran and radical Islam will fall immediately.

Arab-Iranian control over the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea could be the real reason the U.S. is not involved in this Mideast war. Our economy is shaky, the dollar is extremely weak, and Iran could threaten or even cut off all our oil and wreck the U.S. economy to keep America out of the war.

The prophecy about Libya and Ethiopia unlocks Iran’s military strategy! We wrote over 15 years ago about Iran’s global ambitions. They have only intensified since that time.

So the Bible indicates that Libya and Ethiopia also have to be subdued by the king of the north because they were in the radical Islamic camp. Those two nations were “at his steps.” Both countries have already been influenced by radical Islam. But they are not in the radical Muslim camp—yet.

Why are these two nations even mentioned in this prophecy if they don’t play a key role?

Lebanon’s Government Falls

The Lebanese government has been friendly to the U.S., but it also fell in late January this year. Hezbollah, a terrorist arm of Iran, has now gotten control of Lebanon.

Agence France-Presse wrote on January 26, “Israeli Vice Prime Minister Silvan Shalom said on Wednesday that Lebanon was being taken ‘hostage’ by Iran and Hezbollah, after the Shiite group’s preferred candidate was named as Lebanese premier-designate. ‘The international community must do everything to stop Hezbollah and Iran from taking Lebanon hostage,’ Shalom told Israeli public radio. ‘Hezbollah is not simply a terrorist organization, it’s a terrorist organization controlled by the Iranian state,’ he said.”

That is the king of the south in action!

This is another dangerous shift in Middle East power to terror-sponsoring Iran. It’s more bad news for Israel and the U.S., because the Lebanese government was friendly toward them. Iran’s terrorist arm of Lebanon is geographically joined to Israel.

The alarm bells are ringing!

While I was writing this article, the Yemen government pledged to soon step down because of large demonstrations. That government has also been helping the U.S. and others fight the war against terror. Yemen is already infested with terrorists. It is located on the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden—and is another strategically powerful country if you are trying to control world trade.

World War III and Christ’s Second Coming

Events in the Middle East are going to trigger World War iii. The king of the north, after conquering the king of the south, will be alarmed as the kings of the east prepare to attack. So the European power will strike first. Europe will then be overwhelmed by Russia, China and probably Japan. (For more information, request our booklets Daniel—Unsealed at Last and The King of the South.)

This will lead to Armageddon, which leads to Christ’s Second Coming.

“And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination [the king of the north] that maketh desolate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days” (Daniel 12:11).

Verse 12 then says, “Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days.” Here God draws attention to 1,335 days and says those who make it to the beginning of this time period are blessed.

From Daniel 10:10 to the end of Daniel’s book is the longest single prophecy in the Bible. Mainly it focuses on “the time of the end” (Daniel 11:40). The Moffatt Bible translates that expression, “when the end arrives.”

The end time has arrived! Mighty prophecies are being fulfilled before your eyes! That means monstrous and lightning-fast changes in world events. But these extremely dangerous end-time events conclude with the coming of the Messiah. That is the finale to the longest single prophecy in the Bible!

Whether we like it or not, the end time has arrived. Ninety percent of Bible prophecy is being fulfilled in this end time. News reports are filled with prophetic events.

America is about to go bankrupt. Soon riots and race wars are going to explode in the U.S. They will make the demonstrations in Egypt seem like child’s play by comparison!

God is going to get our attention!

The Great Tribulation is about to burst on the world scene. It will be followed immediately by the Day of the Lord—which is concluded by the Messiah’s coming.

Bible prophecy proves that God is alive and His plan always prevails. It is time for all mankind to wake up to the reality of Bible prophecy!

The extremely good news is that these cataclysmic events lead directly to the Second Coming of Christ. Then Christ will rule this Earth forever under the direction of His Father.

Mankind’s terrible suffering is about to end forever.

Iran’s terrorist infrastructure in the Sinai

With Egypt in turmoil, Iran is wasting no time in developing its weapons smuggling infrastructure in the Sinai Peninsula, according to Israeli defense officials, the Jerusalem Postreports.

“Iran wants to take advantage of the current anarchy in Egypt and establish a stronger foothold in Gaza,” a senior defense official said. “They are building new capabilities, upgrading smuggling mechanisms and studying the new military presence there to see how it will affect them.”

Since the Hamas takeover of Gaza in 2007, Iran’s proxy has bombarded southern Israel with rockets and small missiles. With the demise of Egypt’s President Hosni Mubarak, Israel now fears that the whole Sinai border could become a launch pad for similar projectiles endangering the southern Israeli port city of Eilat.

For the past 30 years of Mubarak’s reign, Israel’s southern border with Egypt was a non-threat. But now, just weeks after his ouster, the 240-kilometer-long border is another worry for Israel in its battle for survival.