Notes

From the book Raising the Ruins
By Stephen Flurry

Foreword

1. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 203.

2. Declaration of Ralph Helge at 3, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

Chapter 1: Absolute Power

1. Pastor General’s Report, May 24, 1985, 1.

2. John Dart, Los Angeles Times, September 28, 1985, part 2, 4. 80,000 of these were baptized members.

3. The 210,000 figure included 80,000 co-workers and 130,000 donors. Co-workers were those who made donations to the church at least twice during a six-month period (Pastor General’s Report, June 7, 1985, page 9). The Pastor General’s Report, April 18, 1986, reported that there were 91,937 co-workers, but that 11,903 had been added the first three months of 1986 (page 11). Since Mr. Armstrong died on January 16 of that year, I did not count the ones added those first three months. Thus, at the time of his death, there were approximately 80,000 co-workers. Added to those figures, there were 130,000 donors (ibid.). Donors are defined in the March 15, 1985, Pastor General’s Report as “those who send a donation once or twice in a year” (page 3). The April 18 issue reported that there were 148,328 donors, but that 15,889 had been added the first three months of 1986. Since Mr. Armstrong died on January 16 of that year, I did not count the ones added those first three months. Thus, at the time of his death, there were approximately 130,000 donors.

4. Pastor General’s Report, May 24, 1985, 1.

5. According to the August 28, 1989, Worldwide News, the church’s income for 1987 amounted to $192,081,000 (page 7). Using that established figure, we then calculated the published percentage increases in reverse. According to The Worldwide News, income in 1987 increased by 5.5 percent over 1986 (July 11, 1988, page 3), which means the income in 1986 would have been approximately $182 million. This figure, according to The Worldwide News (May 11, 1987, page 3), was 11.2 percent above 1985, which means revenue for 1985 would have been approximately $163.7 million.

6. Richard N. Ostling, “Power, Glory—and Politics; Right-wing preachers dominate the dial,” Time Magazine, February 17, 1986, 62; “Speaker Says Slide to Liberalism is Costing Methodists Members,” Washington Post, July 12, 1986, D10. The Time article identified Falwell’s annual income at $100 million, while the Post reported Graham’s revenues to be $55.3 million.

7. Richard N. Ostling, “Power, Glory—and Politics; Right-wing preachers dominate the dial,” Time Magazine, February 17, 1986, 62. The annual income for these preachers during the mid-1980s breaks down like this: Swaggart, $140 million; Roberts, $120 million; Bakker, $100 million; Falwell, $100 million. The article did not include an exact figure for Robert Schuller, but noted that his annual TV budget was $37 million and that he spent “an additional $5.7 million on non-TV operations.”

8. “World Tomorrow: No. 1,” The Worldwide News, August 19, 1985, 1.

9. “1985: year of media expansion,” The Worldwide News, January 27, 1986, 7.

10. Richard Rice, “MPC records greatest harvest,” The Worldwide News, January 27, 1986, 7.

11. Paul Richter, “End of the Paternalistic Era,” Los Angeles Times, January 31, 1986, part 4, 1.

12. “1 in every 633 receives the Plain Truth magazine,” The Worldwide News, May 13, 1985, 5.

13. Richard Rice, “MPC records greatest harvest,” The Worldwide News, January 27, 1986, 7.

14. Paul Richter, “End of the Paternalistic Era,” Los Angeles Times, January 31, 1986, part 4, 1; Alison Rogers and Karen Kraner, Adweek, November 18, 1985. Time’s circulation was 5.9 million and Newsweek’s was 3 million—totaling 8.9 million. The Plain Truth and The Good News, by comparison, totaled 9.23 million.

15. “Update,” The Worldwide News, December 16, 1985, 8.

16. Richard Rice, “AC Bible course passes three decades of printing,” The Worldwide News, January 7, 1985, 1.

17. Ibid.

18. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, January 1986, 2.

19. Richard Rice, Pastor General’s Report, June 7, 1985, 8.

20. Richard Rice, Pastor General’s Report, June 24, 1987, 12.

21. Richard Rice, Pastor General’s Report, August 2, 1985, 5.

22. Richard Rice, “MPC records greatest harvest,” The Worldwide News, January 27, 1986, 7.

23. Ibid.

24. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, November 25, 1985, 1.

25. “Update,” The Worldwide News, December 30, 1985, 8. “This is the largest number of books to be distributed in such a short time period.”

26. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 105.

27. The Journal, Church of God Timelime: 1996-2004. Available at http://www.thejournal.org/archives/cgtimln4.html.

28. Gary Scott, “Auditorium preserved,” Pasadena Star-News, May 14, 2004.

29. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 184.

30. Ibid., 185.

31. J. Michael Feazell, The Liberation of the Worldwide Church of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2001), 43-44.

32. Ibid., 27.

33. Ibid., 23.

34. Ibid., 45.

35. Ibid.

36. Deposition of J. Michael Feazell at 236-37, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

37. J. Michael Feazell, The Liberation of the Worldwide Church of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2001), 45.

38. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 98.

39. Ibid., 186.

40. Worldwide Church of God, Intended preface to the e-publishing works, 2002, 2.

41. Deposition of J. Michael Feazell at 230, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

42. Id. at 225.

43. J. Michael Feazell, The Liberation of the Worldwide Church of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2001), 146.

44. Ibid., 114, 45.

45. Ibid., 146.

46. Ibid., 112.

47. Ibid., 120.

48. Ibid., 120-21.

49. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 451, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

50. Ronald Kelly, “Planning under way for new financial model,” The Worldwide News, June 2004, 24.

Chapter 2: Legacies

1. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 143.

2. Ibid., 71.

3. J. Michael Feazell, The Liberation of the Worldwide Church of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2001), 146.

4. Joseph Tkach, “Forgive Us Our Trespasses,” The Plain Truth, March/April 1996, 1.

5. Ibid., 26.

6. “Book charts church’s reformation,” The Worldwide News, June 24, 1997, 3.

7. Joseph W. Tkach Jr., “A Church Reborn,” Christian Research Journal, Winter 1996.

8. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), front matter.

9. “Book charts church’s reformation,” The Worldwide News, June 24, 1997, 3.

10. Ibid.

11. Greg Albrecht, “Updates from Plain Truth Ministries,” The Worldwide News, January 27, 1998, 13.

12. Personal interview with Multnomah representative, December 29, 2005.

13. J. Michael Feazell, The Liberation of the Worldwide Church of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2001), front matter.

14. Ibid.

15. “Zondervan publishes book by Michael Feazell,” The Worldwide News, July 2001, 3.

16. Deposition of J. Michael Feazell at 39-40, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

17. Personal interview with Zondervan representative, December 29, 2005.

18. Joseph W. Tkach, “He Remembered You,” The Plain Truth, November/December 1986, 1.

19. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, February 25, 1985, 2.

20. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), xii.

21. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 12.

22. Ibid., 103-04.

23. Joseph W. Tkach Jr., Letter to Dennis Leap, April 20, 1990, 1.

24. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, May 21, 1990, 6.

25. Joseph Tkach Jr., “A Church Reborn,” Christian Research Journal, Winter 1996.

26. “Journal reviews book by HWA,” The Worldwide News, November 18, 1985, 1.

27. “Update,” The Worldwide News, December 2, 1985, 8.

28. Pastor General’s Report, December 6, 1985, 7.

29. “Update,” The Worldwide News, December 30, 1985, 8.

30. Richard Rice, Pastor General’s Report, December 20, 1985, 7.

31. Declaration of Roger Lippross at 2, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

32. Pasadena Star-News, January 17, 1986.

33. Joseph Tkach, “Forgive Us Our Trespasses,” The Plain Truth, March/April 1996, 1.

34. Joseph Tkach Jr., “A Church Reborn,” Christian Research Journal, Winter 1996.

35. “Friends Remember Mr. Armstrong,” The Good News, May 1986, 15.

36. Ibid., 16.

37. “Dignitaries, leaders share loss of pastor general,” The Worldwide News, February 10, 1986, 12.

38. “Friends Remember Mr. Armstrong,” The Good News, May 1986, 18.

39. Joseph Tkach, “Forgive Us Our Trespasses,” The Plain Truth, March/April 1996, 1.

40. “Friends Remember Mr. Armstrong,” The Good News, May 1986, 15, 17.

41. “Dignitaries, leaders share loss of pastor general,” The Worldwide News, February 10, 1986, 1.

42. “Milestones in Church’s work,” The Worldwide News, February 24, 1986, 5.

43. “Friends Remember Mr. Armstrong,” The Good News, May 1986, 15.

44. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), 23-24.

45. Ibid., viii.

46. Stephen Flurry, “The Other Side of the Story,” The Philadelphia Trumpet, April 1997, 1.

47. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 78, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

48. Denise Hamilton and Daniel Cariaga, “Ambassador concert hall to close in May,” Los Angeles Times, January 28, 1995, A1.

49. Diane Haithman, “Hall needs a rescuer,” Los Angeles Times, December 20, 2002, part 5, 2.

50. “Church sells lower portion of Ambassador Campus,” The Worldwide News, June 2004.

51. Herbert W. Armstrong, “Recent history of the Philadelphia Era of the Worldwide Church of God,” The Worldwide News, June 24, 1985, special edition, 3.

52. Stanley Rader, Against the Gates of Hell (New York: Everest House, 1980), 86.

53. Ibid., 138-39.

54. Ibid., 86.

55. Larry Omasta, “HWA ‘a natural communicator,’ says director of Media Services,” The Worldwide News, February 10, 1986, 4.

56. Norman A. Smith, “Evangelist remembers early broadcasts,” The Worldwide News, February 10, 1986, 4.

57. Dexter H. Faulkner, “Editor in chief lives on through training of staff,” The Worldwide News, February 10, 1986, 5.

58. Ellis La Ravia, “Foundation helped HWA deliver Gospel,” The Worldwide News, February 10, 1986, 5.

59. Roderick C. Meredith, “HWA’s hallmarks: involvement and drive,” The Worldwide News, February 10, 1986, 8.

60. Leroy Neff, “HWA’s favorite subject: the work of God,” The Worldwide News, February 10, 1986, 9.

61. Frank Brown, “Mr. Armstrong’s clarity of vision helped inspire Church’s growth,” The Worldwide News, February 10, 1986, 10.

62. Joseph W. Tkach, “God’s will was ‘the joy of his life,’ says pastor general about HWA,” The Worldwide News, February 10, 1986, 3.

63. Joseph W. Tkach, Lecture to staff, Pasadena CA, January 16, 1986.

64. Joseph W. Tkach, Closing prayer at funeral service of Herbert W. Armstrong, Pasadena CA, January 19, 1986.

65. Worldwide Church of God, “Transformed by Christ: A Brief History of the Worldwide Church of God.” Available at http://www.wcg.org/lit/aboutus/history.htm.

Chapter 3: The Self-Appointed Apostle

1. Herbert W. Armstrong, “Christ now moves to put God’s government back on the track,” The Good News, September 1979, 28.

2. Herbert W. Armstrong, “Recent history of the Philadelphia Era of the Worldwide Church of God,” The Worldwide News, June 24, 1985, special edition, 4.

3. Ibid.

4. Deposition of Ralph Helge at 149-50, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

5. Personal interview with Aaron Dean, November 22, 2005.

6. Herbert W. Armstrong, Letter to Roderick C. Meredith, March 14, 1980.

7. Personal interview with Aaron Dean, November 22, 2005.

8. Ibid. Mr. Dean said that since Mr. Meredith had obviously been ruled out, the other candidates pretty much were the other men on the council—ministers like Leroy Neff, Herman Hoeh—even himself.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

11. Deposition of Ralph Helge at 140, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April, 1999).

12. Id. at 136.

13. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, January 10, 1986, 1.

14. Personal interview with Aaron Dean, November 22, 2005.

15. “Worldwide Church of God Founder Names Successor,” Associated Press, January 15, 1986.

16. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, December 9, 1985, 1.

17. Ibid.

18. Deposition of Ralph Helge at 141, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

19. Joseph W. Tkach, Co-worker letter, part 2, January 16, 1986, 1.

20. Aaron Dean, Sermon, March 24, 1996.

21. Larry R. Salyer, Pastor General’s Report, December 2, 1986, 4.

22. Ibid.

23. “Update,” The Worldwide News, January 26, 1987, 8.

24. “Spirit is catalyst of unity, says apostle in Pasadena,” The Worldwide News, February 9, 1987, 1; Jeff E. Zhorne, “Christ’s apostle ‘deeply inspired’ by trip to Jordan, Egypt, Israel,” The Worldwide News, March 9, 1987, 1.

25. Herbert W. Armstrong, “The 19-Year Cycles—What Happened January 7—What My Commission Is!” Tomorrow’s World, February 1972, 1.

26. Herbert W. Armstrong, “Six More Ministers Now Ordained,” The Good News, February-March 1955, 7.

27. Acts 8:18-19.

28. Personal interview with Aaron Dean, November 22, 2005.

29. Ibid.

Chapter 4: Credentials

1. Personal interview with Aaron Dean, November 22, 2005.

2. Jeff Zhorne and Michael Snyder, “The Passing of the Baton,” The Worldwide News, January 27, 1986, 3.

3. Personal interview with Gerald Flurry, January 9, 2006.

4. “Passing the Baton,” The Good News, May 1986, 13.

5. Jeff Zhorne and Michael Snyder, “The Passing of the Baton,” The Worldwide News, January 27, 1986, 3.

6. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 81.

7. Personal interview with Gerald Flurry January 9, 2006.

8. Personal interview with Roderick C. Meredith, January 9, 2006.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

11. Personal Correspondence Department L168, 1989.

12. Jeff Zhorne, “Milestones in the life of Joseph W. Tkach,” The Worldwide News, December 5, 1995, 5.

13. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 79.

14. Joseph W. Tkach, “A Boy from the Inner City,” The Plain Truth, June 1986, 1.

15. Jeff Zhorne, “Milestones in the life of Joseph W. Tkach,” The Worldwide News, December 5, 1995, 5.

16. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, January 26, 1987, 1.

17. Jeff Zhorne and Michael Snyder, “The Passing of the Baton,” The Worldwide News, January 27, 1986, 3.

18. Based on a review of school archives by degreechk.com.

19. Worldwide Church of God, Intended preface to the e-publishing works, 2002, 1.

20. J. Michael Feazell, The Liberation of the Worldwide Church of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001), 24.

21. Ibid., 25.

22. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 12.

23. Personal interview with Aaron Dean, November 22, 2005.

24. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 83.

25. Personal interview with Roderick C. Meredith, January 9, 2006.

26. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 380, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

27. Id.

28. Id.

29. Herbert W. Armstrong, Autobiography of Herbert W. Armstrong, Vol. 1 (Pasadena, CA: Worldwide Church of God, 1986), 305.

30. Ibid.

31. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), 280.

32. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 380, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, Inc., No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

33. Id. at 381-382.

34. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 35.

35. Ibid., 89. The wcg’s Personal Correspondence Department made this same point in a letter dated December 8, 1994, written by a wcg official: “From an ethical point of view, it is well-known by our critics, and we must face the fact, that Mr. Armstrong did not originate this teaching (that the tribes of Israel went to the British Isles).” Actually, Mr. Armstrong never made the claim that everything he wrote in The United States and Britain in Prophecy originated with him. Mr. Armstrong wrote, “Very few, indeed, have ever noticed that the promises to Abraham were twofold” (page 29). Later, he wrote, “Few, indeed, are the clergymen, theologians, or professed Bible scholars who know that [the fact that many prophecies about Israel do not refer to the Jews] today. Many refuse to know it!” (page 43). Repeatedly, he stressed that only a few have understood.

36. Herbert W. Armstrong, Bible study, Pasadena CA, July 19, 1980.

37. Ibid.

38. J. H. Allen, Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright (Merrimac, MA: Destiny Publishers, 1917), 13.

39. Herbert W. Armstrong, The United States and Britain in Prophecy (Worldwide Church of God, 1980), ix.

40. In chapter 9 of the third section, for example, Allen discusses the impossibility of America and Britain ever being conquered militarily. Then, in the last chapter of the book, “The Coming Exodus,” he reveals his total ignorance regarding Israel’s biblically prophesied captivity at the hands of the modern-day Assyrians.

41. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 66.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., 66-67.

44. Deposition of J. Michael Feazell at 20-21, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306 CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

45. Personal interview with Roderick C. Meredith, January 9, 2006.

46. J. Michael Feazell, The Liberation of the Worldwide Church of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001), 138.

47. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 83.

48. Worldwide Church of God, “Transformed by Christ: A Brief History of the Worldwide Church of God.” Available at http://www.wcg.org/lit/aboutus/history.htm.

Chapter 5: Tkach’s Fellows

1. Personal interview with Aaron Dean, November 22, 2005.

2. Personal interview with Bob Herrington, November 18, 2005.

3. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, September 29, 1987, 1.

4. Edward Glancy, “Ambassador considers addition of more majors,” The Portfolio, December 28, 1973, 1.

5. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, September 25, 1978, 4.

6. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, June 28, 1978, 6.

7. Ibid., 7.

8. Ibid., 8.

9. Herbert W. Armstrong, “Recent History of the Philadelphia Era of the Worldwide Church of God,” The Worldwide News, June 24, 1985, special edition, 3-4.

Chapter 6: Fingerprints

1. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 84.

2. Ibid., 21.

3. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), 251.

4. Joseph W. Tkach, “God restored these 18 truths: How thankful are you for them?” The Worldwide News, August 25, 1986, 5.

5. Basil Wolverton, The Bible Story, Vol. 1 (Radio Church of God, 1961), viii-ix.

6. Ibid., 52.

7. Ibid., 53.

8. Herbert W. Armstrong, The Plain Truth About Christmas (Ambassador College Press, 1970), 10-11.

9. On page 7 of The Plain Truth About Christmas, Mr. Armstrong asked, “But if we got Christmas from the Roman Catholics, and they got it from paganism, where did the pagans get it? Where, when, and what was its real origin?” As Mr. Armstrong went on to explain, the church had taught for decades that these pagan customs originated in ancient Babylon, beginning with Nimrod and his wife Semiramis soon after the Flood.

Not true, according to a discovery made by wcg scholars a year after Mr. Armstrong died. “It started in ancient Egypt in the days of King Osiris and Queen Isis, about 3000 b.c. Yes, it stems from roots whose beginning was long before the Flood!” (Pastor General’s Report, February 10, 1987, page 7).

To say that it came from King Osiris and Queen Isis before the Flood is to completely disassociate these two from Nimrod and Semiramis. Mr. Armstrong always taught that Nimrod and King Osiris were one and the same. Likewise for Semiramis and Isis.

This is how the wcg explained the change to its ministers: “It should be carefully noted that these editings take account of the error of Alexander Hislop in The Two Babylons in which he confused Nimrod, in the second generation after the Flood, with Osiris … who lived around 3000 b.c., before the Flood” (ibid.). What’s interesting about this explanation is that neither Hislop nor his book are even mentioned in The Plain Truth About Christmas. Yet, Mr. Armstrong and Ambassador College graduates did draw upon this source, as well as many others, when researching the earliest beginnings of man’s civilization after the Flood. Now, all writing based on Hislop’s point that Osiris and Isis are the Egyptian equivalent of Nimrod and Semiramis would have to be changed.

“Theses or dissertations that were based on references to Hislop’s The Two Babylons need to have this erroneous assumption corrected as well. Note also that Isis is not Semiramis, a claim by Hislop that every historian would correctly reject as false” (ibid., page 8). According to Tkachism, Hislop was way off!

Joe Tkach Jr. later referred to The Two Babylons as an “anti-Catholic polemic.” He said, “Most scholars would not spend time and effort to demolish the conclusions of a polemic work with a narrow reading audience. Since, however, Alexander Hislop’s work has been rather widely circulated by certain religious groups [like the Worldwide Church of God, for instance], we should take note of its basic flaw. It has absolutely no chronological framework to support the author’s conclusions” (Pastor General’s Report, January 31, 1989, page 5). Poor, ignorant Alexander Hislop.

In Mystery of the Ages, chapter 4 is titled “Mystery of Civilization.” In that chapter, Mr. Armstrong referred to Alexander Hislop and his work on two occasions. Discrediting Alexander Hislop proved to be yet another way for Tkachism to take an indirect swipe at Mystery of the Ages.

Incidentally, Hislop’s scholarship stands up quite well against Tkach’s criticisms. His book The Two Babylons (first published in 1853) references more than 260 sources, including Gibbon’s Decline and Fall, Adam’s Roman Antiquities, Begg’s Handbook of Popery, Kennedy’s Ancient and Hindoo Mythology, Potter’s Greek Antiquities, and Stanley’s History of Philosophy. Hislop meticulously cited all his proof.

10. Keith Stump, The History of Europe and the Church (Worldwide Church of God, 1984), 42.

11. Herbert W. Armstrong, United States and Britain in Prophecy (Worldwide Church of God, 1980), 93.

12. Ibid., 147.

13. Ibid., 143-44.

14. Pastor General’s Report, November 15, 1985, 6.

15. Genesis 10:6 says that Cush was a son of Ham. According to Easton’s Bible Dictionary, as well as numerous other Bible helps, the Hebrew word Cush means black. Cush is often translated into English as Ethiopia. See the Moffatt translation for Genesis 10:6.

16. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, December 9, 1985, 1-2.

17. Richard Ames, Pastor General’s Report, December 27, 1985, 5.

18. Aaron K. Dean, “Education: What does God expect?” The Worldwide News, December 30, 1985, 1.

19. Ken Tate, “Pastor general addresses 4,600 during trip to Big Sandy campus,” The Worldwide News, March 24, 1986, 1.

20. “Texas campus to remain open, says chancellor in college forum,” The Worldwide News, April 21, 1986, 1.

21. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, March 21, 1986, 1.

22. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, April 18, 1986, 2.

23. “Texas campus to remain open, says chancellor in college forum,” The Worldwide News, April 21, 1986, 1.

24. Herbert W. Armstrong, “The 19-Year Time Cycles —What Happened January 7—What My Commission Is!” Tomorrow’s World, February 1972, 32.

25. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, September 17, 1982, 1.

26. Herbert W. Armstrong, Sermon, Pasadena CA, December 17, 1983.

27. Herbert W. Armstrong, The Plain Truth About Healing (Worldwide Church of God, 1979), 53.

28. Joseph W. Tkach, Sermon, Pasadena CA, January 18, 1986.

29. John 6:44.

30. Herbert W. Armstrong, “Congress of leading ministers hears defined and reemphasized spiritual organization of church,” The Worldwide News, March 6, 1981, 5.

31. Joseph W. Tkach, Sermon, Pasadena CA, January 18, 1986.

32. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, January 24, 1986, 2.

33. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, September 12, 1985, 1.

34. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), 289.

35. Ibid., 290.

36. Ibid., 290-91.

37. Ibid., 291.

38. Larry R. Salyer, Pastor General’s Report, December 16, 1986, 8.

39. Ibid., 9.

40. Herbert W. Armstrong, The Incredible Human Potential (Herbert W. Armstrong, 1978), 5.

41. Herbert W. Armstrong, What Do You Mean“The Unpardonable Sin”? (Pasadena, CA: Ambassador College Press, 1972), 8-9.

42. Larry R. Salyer, Pastor General’s Report, December 30, 1986, 11.

43. To understand the significance of this change, we need some context. Mr. Armstrong taught that human beings are wholly physical—made from the dust of the ground (Genesis 2:7). God, on the other hand, is entirely spirit (John 4:24). And yet, it says in Genesis 1:26, man was created in God’s image and likeness. God’s purpose, as revealed from the beginning, was to make mankind into God kind. Our incredible human potential is to be born into the family of God by a literal spirit birth, as described in John 3:3-6.

But how would this be brought about? How would God take an entirely physical creation and make it spirit? How would He bridge the gap between Himself and man? By creating physical man with a spiritual attribute called the “spirit in man” (Job 32:8). Besides giving man the power of intellect, putting us on a plane far superior to animals, this human spirit makes possible the transition of mortal man into spirit being in God’s Kingdom.

Of and by itself, the human spirit gives man a godly type mind, because it enables us to think and reason within the scope of physical, material things. But it is incomplete without another spirit—the Spirit of God. God gives His Spirit, as a gift, to those who repent of their sins, accept the sacrifice of Jesus Christ and are baptized. That’s when God’s Spirit combines with our spirit, making us the begotten children of God (Romans 8:16). The actual birth occurs when we are resurrected to spirit life at Jesus Christ’s return.

That leads us to one other vital purpose for the human spirit. “The spirit that is in every human acts as a mold. It preserves the human’s memory, his character, his form and shape,” Mr. Armstrong wrote on page 85 of The Incredible Human Potential. This “sculptor’s mold” is what God, as the Master Potter (Isaiah 64:8), uses when He gives us our spirit bodies at the resurrection.

On page 71 of the book, referring to the human spirit, Mr. Armstrong wrote, “It is that nonphysical component in the human brain that does not exist in the brain of animals. It is the ingredient that makes possible the transition from human to divine, without changing matter into spirit, at the time of resurrection.” These two sentences were combined as one in the 1986 version: “It is that nonphysical component in the human brain that is the ingredient that makes possible the transition from human to divine, from matter into spirit, at the time of resurrection.”

First, notice they left out the fact that this nonphysical component does not exist in animals. (They made a similar edit in Never Before Understood—Why Humanity Cannot Solve Its Evils where Mr. Armstrong said “man has mind, while animal has only brain with instinct.” They edited the word “only” out so as to leave the subject “open to future growth in understanding,” Larry Salyer wrote in the Pastor General’s Report (January 27, 1987)—presumably, in case their scholars later discovered a spiritual dimension to the animal brain.) Second, “without changing matter into spirit” was changed to “from matter into spirit,” which gives the passage an entirely different meaning. Now, instead of the Sculptor using the mold to create our spirit bodies, He instead uses the clay—changing it into spirit.

44. Larry R. Salyer, Pastor General’s Report, December 16, 1986, 10.

45. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), 50.

46. Larry R. Salyer, Pastor General’s Report, December 30, 1986, 12.

47. K. J. Stavrinides, “Does elohim refer to a family of divine beings?” The Worldwide News, August 3, 1993, 4.

48. David Hulme, Letter of resignation to Joseph Tkach, April 17, 1995, 6.

49. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sister, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 69-70.

50. Ibid.

Chapter 7: Riddled With Error

1. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 155, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

2. Id.

3. Herbert W. Armstrong, United States and Britain in Prophecy (Worldwide Church of God, 1980), 64.

4. Ibid., 65.

5. Ibid., 43.

6. Larry R. Salyer, Pastor General’s Report, February 10, 1987, 9.

7. Mr. Armstrong never said Jews were not Israelites—but most Israelites are not Jews. Furthermore, when the Bible speaks of these peoples as nations—and this fact is critical to understanding prophetic events—“Israel” refers the United States and Britain (and to a lesser degree, the nations of northwest Europe), whereas “Judah” refers to the people who reside in the land mistakenly called “Israel” today. Again, this is the whole point of Mr. Armstrong’s book! But it couldn’t survive the editor’s knife in 1986 because it had become a “source of criticism.” During Mr. Armstrong’s ministry, more than 6 million people requested The United States and Britain in Prophecy. It was the most popular piece of literature Mr. Armstrong ever produced. Yet, within months of Mr. Armstrong’s death, Tkach’s editors lopped off the book’s central point.

8. Larry R. Salyer, Pastor General’s Report, February 10, 1987, 9.

9. Mr. Armstrong explained in The United States and Britain in Prophecy that, because of ancient Israel’s rebellion, God withheld their birthright promises, made unconditionally to Abraham, for a period of 2,520 years. In Israel’s case, the 2,520-year withholding, using Mr. Armstrong’s dates, means that God would then bestow the birthright blessings on the descendants of Israel from 1800 to 1803—the latter date being when the United States purchased the Louisiana Territory. Isolating Israel’s captivity date to 721 b.c., however, limits the end of the prophesied withholding to 1800. A slight difference, yes, but one that de-emphasizes the prophetic significance of the Louisiana Purchase.

The hazy date regarding Judah’s captivity is much more significant from a prophetic standpoint. Using the dates Mr. Armstrong researched, Judah’s 2,520-year punishment would have ended in 1917—which is the year the British took control of Palestine. While Mr. Armstrong does not refer to this specific prophecy in The United States and Britain in Prophecy, he does allude to another prophecy regarding Turkey and how God prophesied that they would have to give up the land of Palestine, which they did in 1917. Tkach’s editors left this entire section of the book (“Prophecy for Turkey”) out of the 1986 version.

Mr. Armstrong thoroughly explained the 2,520-year curse on Judah in The Bible—Superstition or Authority?and Can You Prove It?—a booklet he wrote just after finishing Mystery of the Ages in 1985. In fact, Mr. Armstrong wanted the booklet sent to all those who requested Mystery of the Ages. He said it could even be the opening chapter of the book in future editions.

10. Pastor General’s Report, August 18, 1987, 10.

11. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 130.

12. “Anglo-Israelism” and “British Israelism,” incidentally, are terms Mr. Armstrong never used. Some groups who do foster racial prejudice use these terms. And certainly, Tkach Jr. and fanatical “cult watchers” throw these terms around to “foster rebuke” against people they deem to be racist. Mr. Armstrong was not racist—nor did he foster racial prejudice. He taught the Bible’s interpretation of the modern identity of nations as well as why those nations—all of them, whether Israelite or gentile—are headed for disaster unless we repent.

13. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 131.

14. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, August 14, 1978, 11.

15. Joseph W. Tkach, “As Passover Approaches … New Understanding of the Meaning of Christ’s Broken Body and the Church’s Teaching on Healing,” The Worldwide News, March 23, 1987, 1.

16. Herbert W. Armstrong, The Plain Truth About Healing (Worldwide Church of God, 1979), 66, 58.

17. Ibid., 65.

18. Ibid., 58.

19. Psalm 103:3; Isaiah 53:5; Matthew 8:17; 1 Peter 2:24.

20. Luke 22:14-20; 1 Corinthians 11:23-30.

21. Romans 7:14.

22. Romans 6:23.

23. Joseph W. Tkach, “As Passover Approaches … New Understanding of the Meaning of Christ’s Broken Body and the Church’s Teaching on Healing,” The Worldwide News, March 23, 1987, 1.

24. Worldwide Church of God, “Healing,” Systematic Theology Project, 1978, 7.

25. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 144.

26. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, March 18, 1987, 14.

27. Personal Correspondence Department L028, July 1987, 2.

28. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, February 9, 1988, 2.

29. Ibid., 3.

30. Ibid.

31. Ibid., 2.

32. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), 291.

33. Ibid., 348.

34. Ibid., 9.

35. Ibid., 51-56.

36. Ibid., 149-56.

37. Ibid., 183.

38. Richard Rice, Pastor General’s Report, September 15, 1987, 17.

39. Dexter H. Faulkner, Pastor General’s Report, December 15, 1987, 7.

Chapter 8: Discard

1. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 101-02, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

2. “Update,” The Worldwide News, December 21, 1987, 8.

3. “Update,” The Worldwide News, March 14, 1988, 8.

4. Dexter Faulkner, Interoffice memo to Joseph Tkach, April 18, 1988.

5. Literature Coordination Report 5, May 13, 1988, 1.

6. Literature Coordination Report 6, May 20, 1988, 1.

7. Literature Coordination Report 8, June 2, 1988, 1-2.

8. Declaration of Roger Lippross at 3, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

9. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 101, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. April 20, 1999).

10. Id. at 112.

11. Literature Coordination Report 8, June 2, 1988, 2.

12. Mail Processing Center Procedures 553, June 30, 1988, 2.

13. Literature Coordination Report 14, July 14, 1988, 1.

14. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 113, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. April 20, 1999).

15. Id. at 114.

16. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, July 19, 1988, 1.

17. Herbert W. Armstrong, Autobiography of Herbert W. Armstrong, Vol. 1 (Pasadena, CA: Worldwide Church of God, 1986), 295.

18. On page 170 of Mystery of the Ages, Mr. Armstrong wrote, “Everything God has done, since the creation of the first humans, has been another progressive step in God’s overall supreme purpose!” The phrase “first human[s],” by the way, appears nine times in Mystery, in reference to either Adam or Adam and Eve.

On page 75, Mr. Armstrong explained that Genesis 1 (except for the first verse) actually describes a re-creation of the Earth’s surface, not the original creation. “What is described from verse 2 on, in the supposed creation chapter of the Bible, did occur, according to the Bible, approximately 6,000 years ago. But that could have been millions or trillions of years after the actual creation of the earth described in verse 1!” He offers further explanation about Genesis 1:1-2 on page 99.

These teachings all rest on the foundation of another critical doctrine explained in Mr. Armstrong’s book: “God set apart a 7,000-year period to complete his original supreme purpose of reproducing himself through man. It was a masterminded master plan for working out the purpose here below” (page 143). Once scholars suggested that “modern forms of human life may have existed long before 4,000 b.c.,” as the Personal Correspondence Department later explained, it all but obliterated God’s 7,000-year master plan as taught by Mr. Armstrong.

19. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, August 2, 1988, 1.

20. Ibid.

21. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), 265-70.

22. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, December 9, 1985, 1.

23. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), 1.

24. Ibid., 25.

25. Ibid., 140. On this page, Mr. Armstrong wrote, “Jesus Christ, through the Church, built three colleges—two in the United States and one in England. The three campuses, in material beauty, have mutually excelled each other, as a high character physical setting for the development of God’s righteous character in students. The beauty of godly character in these students has excelled the physical beauty of the campuses. … These campuses are an example of what mankind should have done, and a modest foretaste of the beauty that will blossom forth over the whole earth after Christ and his saints in his kingdom are ruling the earth in the wonderful world tomorrow.”

26. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, November 22, 1988, 1.

27. Ibid.

Chapter 9: Incidental Points

1. Literature Coordination Report 21, December 2, 1988, 1.

2. Literature Coordination Report 5, May 13, 1988, 1.

3. Literature Coordination Report 21, December 2, 1988, 1.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. Mail Processing Center Procedures 566, December 22, 1988, 1.

7. Ibid., 4.

8. Larry R. Salyer, Pastor General’s Report, January 31, 1989, 4; Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, February 20, 1989, 1.

9. Pastor General’s Report, December 19, 1989, 6.

10. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, January 3, 1989, 1.

11. Ibid.

12. Matthew 17:11.

13. Matthew 17:13.

14. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, January 17, 1989, 1.

15. Ibid.

16. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), 131.

17. Larry R. Salyer, Pastor General’s Report, January 31, 1989, 3-4.

18. Ibid., 4.

19. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 127, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

20. Dexter Faulkner, Interoffice memo to Joseph Tkach, April 18, 1988.

21. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 127, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

22. Id. at 128.

23. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, April 19, 1985, 1.

24. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, September 12, 1985, 1.

25. “Literature editors meet to form literature core,” The Worldwide News, June 13, 1988, 1.

26. “Update,” The Worldwide News, December 21, 1987, 8.

27. Ibid.

28. Literature Coordination Report 21, December 2, 1988, 1-2.

29. Ibid., 2.

30. “Literature editors meet to form literature core,” The Worldwide News, June 13, 1988, 1.

31. Declaration of Roger Lippross at 2, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

32. Richard Rice, Pastor General’s Report, June 24, 1987, 12.

33. Richard Rice, Pastor General’s Report, July 8, 1986, 11.

34. Larry R. Salyer, Pastor General’s Report, January 31, 1989, 4.

35. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), 94.

36. Larry R. Salyer, Pastor General’s Report, January 31, 1989, 4.

37. Ibid.

38. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, February 14, 1989, 1.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid.

41. Ibid., 2.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., 1.

44. Pastor General’s Report, September 19, 1989, 3.

45. Paul Kroll, E-mail to Aluko Michaels, June 30, 2003.

Chapter 10: The Agenda

1.Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 23.

2. Ibid., 67.

3. Joseph W. Tkach, Sermon, Pasadena CA, April 30, 1994.

4. Joseph W. Tkach, Commencement exercises at Ambassador College, May 20, 1994.

5. Joseph W. Tkach, “The true Church: what and where is it?” The Worldwide News, May 17, 1994, 7.

6. Joseph W. Tkach, Sermon, Pasadena CA, November 12, 1994.

7. Joseph W. Tkach, Sermon, Washington DC, December, 1994.

8. David Hulme, Resignation letter to Joseph Tkach, April 17, 1995, 1.

9. Ibid., 6.

10. Joseph W. Tkach Jr., Letter to Dennis Leap, April 20, 1990, 1.

11. Ibid., 3.

12. Ibid., 2.

13. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, June 7, 1985, 2.

14. Joseph W. Tkach, “God restored these 18 truths: How thankful are you for them?” The Worldwide News, August 25, 1986, 5.

15. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, February 9, 1988, 3.

16. Joseph W. Tkach Jr., Letter to Dennis Leap, April 20, 1990, 3-4.

17. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, March 19, 1981, 5-6.

18. David G. Hunsberger, “What the Church teaches about Malachi and his message,” The Worldwide News, June 24, 1991, 4.

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid.

21. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 181.

22. Ibid., 182.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid., 182-83.

25. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to Donald Wheatley, former member of the Worldwide Church of God, October 10, 1994, 1.

26. Joseph Tkach Jr., Interview with Pat Robertson for The 700 Club, March 6, 1998.

27. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages, (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), 51.

28. Herbert W. Armstrong, The Missing Dimension in Sex (Worldwide Church of God, 1981), 29.

29. Philip Stevens, “Who Was Jesus’ Father?” The Good News, November-December, 1990, 10.

30. Michael A. Snyder, Letter to Craig Branch, March 5, 1991, 2.

31. Michael A. Snyder, Phone interview with Watchman Fellowship, April 12, 1991.

32. K. J. Stavrinides, Reviews You Can Use, January/February 1991.

33. David Hulme, Presentation to Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, 1991.

34. Joseph W. Tkach, “How Do You React to Change?” The Worldwide News, July 22, 1991, 4.

35. Ibid.

36. Ibid.

37. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to Glen Myers, November 12, 1991, 5-6.

38. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, December 23, 1991, 1.

39. God Is … (Worldwide Church of God, 1992), 15, 41.

40. Joseph W. Tkach, The Worldwide News, August 25, 1992.

41. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, August 3, 1993, 3, 6.

42. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, August 17, 1993, 7.

43. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to a former member of the Worldwide Church of God, March 16, 1992, 5. The individual’s name was redacted from the letter.

44. Ibid.

45. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 137.

46. Ibid., 138.

47. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to a former member of the Worldwide Church of God, March 16, 1992, 5. The individual’s name was redacted from the letter.

48. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 96.

49. Ibid., 16.

50. Ibid., 19.

51. Ibid., 24.

52. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to a former member of the Worldwide Church of God, March 16, 1992, 8. The individual’s name was redacted from the letter.

53. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 119.

54. Ibid., 126.

55. Ibid., 21.

56. Ibid., 52-53.

57. Ibid., 54.

Chapter 11: Deathbed Repentance

1. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, May 21, 1990, 6.

2. Ibid.

3. Joseph W. Tkach, Co-worker letter, part 2, January 16, 1986, 2.

4. Joseph W. Tkach, “He Remembered You,” The Plain Truth, November/December 1986, 1.

5. Ibid., 1, 4.

6. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, May 21, 1990, 6.

7. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to Glen Myers, November 12, 1991, 2.

8. Joseph W. Tkach, Video to be played in all church areas, November, 1992.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

11. Worldwide Church of God, “Behind the Work,” Fall Festival Film, 1985.

12. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, September 12, 1985, 1.

13. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, November 25, 1985, 1.

14. Joseph W. Tkach Jr., Letter to Dennis Leap, April 20, 1990, 1.

15. Worldwide Church of God, “Behind the Work,” Fall Festival Film, 1985.

16. Herbert W. Armstrong, Letter to Mystery of the Ages recipients, 1985.

17. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to a former member of the Worldwide Church of God, September 26, 1990, 1. The individual’s name was redacted from the letter.

18. David G. Hunsberger, “What the Church teaches about Malachi and his message,” The Worldwide News, June 24, 1991, 6.

19. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to a former member of the Worldwide Church of God, March 16, 1992, 4. The individual’s name was redacted from the letter.

20. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to a former member of the Worldwide Church of God, September 14, 1994, 5. The individual’s name was redacted from the letter.

21. Ibid., 5.

22. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 126.

23. Ibid., 184.

24. Ibid.

25. Ibid., 107.

26. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to a former member of the Worldwide Church of God, March 16, 1992, 3. The individual’s name was redacted from the letter.

27. David G. Hunsberger, “What the Church teaches about Malachi and his message,” The Worldwide News, June 24, 1991, 6.

28. Worldwide Church of God, “Behind the Work,” Fall Festival Film, 1985.

29. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to a former member of the Worldwide Church of God, March 16, 1992, 3. The individual’s name was redacted from the letter.

30. “Herbert W. Armstrong Tribute,” The World Tomorrow television program, January 26, 1986.

31. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 184-85.

32. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, September 12, 1985, 1.

33. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), xii.

34. Joseph Tkach, “Forgive Us Our Trespasses,” The Plain Truth, March/April 1996, 1, 26.

35. Transformed by Truth advertisement, The Plain Truth, July/August 1997, inside cover.

36. Joseph W. Tkach, “Local churches to benefit from evangelical associations,” The Worldwide News, February 18, 1997, 1.

Chapter 12: Stewardship

1. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 165.

2. Ibid., 182.

3. Ibid., 184.

4. Ibid., 186.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid., 188.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid., 72.

9. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, December 16, 1986, 3.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid., 1.

12. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, May 16, 1985, 2.

13. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, December 16, 1986, 3-4.

14. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, December 30, 1986, 3.

15. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, December 16, 1986, 3.

16. Pastor General’s Report, November 17, 1987, 13.

17. The Worldwide News, May 11, 1987, 3. The Treasurer’s Office report notes that the 1986 audit reported a 11.2 percent increase over 1985, though it did not give the actual income figures. But based on the 1985 income of $163.7 million, which we established in chapter 1, an 11.2 percent increase means the 1986 income was just over $182 million.

18. Larry R. Salyer, Pastor General’s Report, May 26, 1987, 5.

19. The Plain Truth, May 1987, table of contents.

20. The Plain Truth, June 1987, table of contents.

21. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, June 24, 1987, 1.

22. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, December 1, 1987, 1.

23. Gerald Waterhouse, Sermon, Tallahassee FL, January 25, 1992.

24. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, January 26, 1988, 1.

25. Worldwide Audited Financial Report, The Worldwide News, August 28, 1989, 7.

26. Jeff E. Zhorne, “Look for ways to improve, says Mr. Tkach at conference,” The Worldwide News, July 11, 1988, 1.

27. Worldwide Audited Financial Report, The Worldwide News, August 28, 1989, 7.

28. Leroy Neff, “Report from the Treasurer’s Office,” The Worldwide News, January 9, 1989, 3.

29. Pastor General’s Report, February 28, 1989, 8.

30. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, January 3, 1989, 1.

31. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, January 23, 1989, 8.

32. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, January 4, 1988, 1.

33. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, October 25, 1988, 4.

34. Jeff E. Zhorne, “Mr. Tkach travels to Pacific regions, Asia,” The Worldwide News, January 18, 1988, 1.

35. Ibid., 3.

36. Aaron Dean, The Worldwide News, March 18, 1985, 1, 3.

37. Jeff E. Zhorne, “Mr. Tkach attends gala event, meets Washington brethren,” The Worldwide News, December 26, 1988, 1.

38. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, April 17, 1989, 1, 4.

39. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, May 8, 1989, 1, 7.

40. Joseph W. Tkach, Co-worker letter, May 25, 1989.

41. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, September 11, 1989, 1.

42. Ibid., 3.

43. Worldwide Audited Financial Report, The Worldwide News, September 2, 1991, 6.

44. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, January 22, 1990, 1.

45. Bill Palmer, “Telecast takes top spot, airs on better stations,” The Worldwide News, March 19, 1990, 6.

46. David Hulme, “1985: year of media expansion,” The Worldwide News, January 27, 1986, 7.

47. Joseph W. Tkach, Co-worker letter, July 26, 1990.

48. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, June 19, 1989, 1.

49. Joseph W. Tkach, Co-worker letter, September 25, 1990.

50. Herbert W. Armstrong, Autobiography of Herbert W. Armstrong, Vol. 2 (Pasadena, CA: Worldwide Church of God, 1987), 268.

51. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, January 14, 1991, 11.

52. The Good News, January/February 1990, table of contents.

53. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, January 14, 1991, 11.

54. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, August 18, 1987, 2.

55. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, September 19, 1988, 1.

56. Worldwide Audited Financial Report, The Worldwide News, September 2, 1991, 6.

57. Worldwide Audited Financial Report, The Worldwide News , July 28, 1992, 7.

58. Worldwide Audited Financial Report, The Worldwide News, September 2, 1991, 6.

59. Ibid.

60. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, March 27, 1990, 2.

61. Worldwide Audited Financial Report, The Worldwide News, August 28, 1989, 7.

62. Worldwide Audited Financial Report, The Worldwide News, September 2, 1991, 6.

63. Philippians 3:8.

64. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 72.

65. Income for 1981 was reported in the February 5, 1982, Pastor General’s Report, page 3. The 1982 and 1983 figures appear in the Worldwide Audited Financial Report, published in The Worldwide News, June 4, 1984, page 6. The next published audit we found was from 1987, when the wcg had a total income of $192 million (The Worldwide News, August 28, 1989, page 7). See note 5 from chapter 1 to see how we calculated WCG income for 1985 and 1986. And since the income for 1985 ($163.7 million) was 10.8 percent above 1984 (Worldwide News, June 16, 1986, page 3), then total revenue in 1984 was about $147.8 million.

66. See note 5 for chapter 1 to see how we calculated total income for 1986. For all four years after 1986, the wcg published its audited financial information in the Worldwide News. For 1987, see August 28, 1989, page 7. For 1988, see July 16, 1990, page 3. For 1989, see September 2, 1991, page 6. And for 1990, see July 28, 1992, page 7.

67. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 71.

68. For 1991 income figures, see Worldwide News, July 6, 1993, page 7. For 1992 and 1993, see Worldwide News, June 28, 1994, page 7. For 1994, Tkach Jr. wrote in Transformed by Truth that it was $164.6 million (page 72). He also indicated that income for 1995, after “The Sermon,” dropped to $103.4 million. This last figure, however, contradicts what was reported in The Worldwide News just before the release of Tkach’s book. The February 18, 1997, issue reported that income in 1995 was about $20 million less than 1994. This would have put the 1995 income at around $145 million. I decided to use the figure from Tkach’s book.

69. Worldwide Audited Financial Report, The Worldwide News, August 28, 1989, 7.

70. Joseph Tkach, “Member donations fund discretionary assistance ministry,” The Worldwide News, March 2003, 6.

71. Ibid.

72. Ronald Kelly, “April donations continue positive,” The Worldwide News, June 2004, 24.

73. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, May 15, 1979, 1.

74. Herbert W. Armstrong, Autobiography of Herbert W. Armstrong, Vol. 2 (Pasadena, CA: Worldwide Church of God, 1987), 591.

75. Philippians 1:23.

76. Herbert W. Armstrong, “Recent History of the Philadelphia Era of the Worldwide Church of God,” The Worldwide News, June 24, 1985, special edition, 4.

77. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, March 29, 1971, 3.

78.Herbert W. Armstrong, Autobiography of Herbert W. Armstrong, Vol. 1 (Pasadena, CA: Worldwide Church of God, 1986), 43.

79. Herbert W. Armstrong, “Where This Breakdown of Family Life Is Taking Us!” The Good News, February 1979, 1.

80. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, November 25, 1985, 1.

81. Joseph Tkach, “He Remembered You,” The Plain Truth, November/December 1986, 1.

82. Herbert W. Armstrong, “Congress of leading ministers hears defined and reemphasized spiritual organization of church,” The Worldwide News, March 6, 1981, 12.

83. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, September 29, 1968, 5.

84. “The Autobiography of Herbert W. Armstrong,” The Plain Truth, November 1957, 17.

85. Last will and testament of Herbert W. Armstrong, January 12, 1986.

86. Ibid.

87. Ibid.

88. Matthew 10:37.

89. Mark 3:33-34.

90. John 9:4.

91. Matthew 22:37.

92. Acts 20:35.

93. Herbert W. Armstrong, “Recent history of the Philadelphia Era of the Worldwide Church of God,” The Worldwide News, June 24, 1985, special edition, 4.

94. Ibid.

Chapter 13: Breaking Ground

1. Michael A. Snyder, “Pastor general conducts services for 5,130 on Sabbath, Holy Day,” The Worldwide News, June 30, 1986, 1.

2. Revelation 3:15.

3. Revelation 3:17.

4. Herman L. Hoeh, A True History of the True Church (Radio Church of God, 1959), 31.

5. Herbert W. Armstrong, “What God Never Did—Never Will—Allow to Happen,” The Good News, August 1979, 27.

6. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, February 14, 1989, 1.

7. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, December 19, 1989, 2.

8. Ibid., 2-3.

9. Ibid., 3.

Chapter 14: First Sip of a Bitter Cup

1. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 145, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

2. Joseph Tkach Jr., Disfellowship notice for Gerald Flurry, December 8, 1989.

3. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 146, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

4. Id. at 151-52.

5. Id. at 156-57.

6. Arnold Clauson, Interoffice memo to Joseph Tkach Jr., December 14, 1989, 1.

7. Ibid., 2.

8. Ralph K. Helge, Letter to Gerald Flurry, December 7, 1989, 1-2.

9. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to Gerald Flurry, December 11, 1989, 1.

10. Gerald Flurry, Letter to Ralph Helge, December 21, 1989, 1.

11. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to Gerald Flurry, January 23, 1990.

12. Gerald Flurry, Letter to Oklahoma City and Enid Brethren, January 11, 1990, 1-2.

Chapter 15: Peanut Shell

1. Pastor General’s Report, December 19, 1989, 6.

2. Pastor General’s Report, January 30, 1990, 4.

3. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, November 14, 1990, 1-2.

4. Ibid., 2

5. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, December 11, 1990, 1.

6. Ibid.

7. Dean Blackwell, Sermon, Columbus OH, May 4, 1991.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

11. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, March 19, 1981, 1.

12. Dean Blackwell, Sermon, Columbus OH, May 4, 1991.

13. Joseph W. Tkach, “Personal,” The Worldwide News, June 24, 1991, 5.

14. David G. Hunsberger, “What the Church teaches about Malachi and his message,” The Worldwide News, June 24, 1991, 4.

15. Ibid.

16. Gerald Waterhouse, Sermon, Tallahasee FL, January 25, 1992.

17. Matthew 16:18.

18. Hebrews 13:5, New King James version.

19. Joseph W. Tkach, Closing prayer at funeral service of Herbert W. Armstrong, Pasadena CA, January 19, 1986.

20. J. Michael Feazell, The Liberation of the Worldwide Church of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001), 109.

Chapter 16: “Largest Audience Possible”

1. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, February 25, 1985, 1-2.

2. Ibid., 2.

3. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), 5.

4. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, April 19, 1985, 1.

5. Richard Rice, Pastor General’s Report, April 19, 1985, 6.

6. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, June 7, 1985, 2.

7. Herbert W. Armstrong, Presentation of Mystery of the Ages to the sophomore class, Ambassador College, September 9, 1985.

8. Herbert W. Armstrong, Mystery of the Ages (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1985), xi.

9. Pastor General’s Report, July 22, 1986, 3.

10. Gerald Flurry, Malachi’s Message (Philadelphia Church of God, 1990), 24.

11. Dennis Leap, Ministerial Conference lecture, Edmond OK, May 31, 1994.

12. Gerald Flurry, Philadelphia Ministers’ Report, February 9, 1996, 1.

13. Michael A. Snyder, “Mystery of the Ages completed; printing begins in U.S. facilities,” The Worldwide News, August 5, 1985, 1.

14. Ibid.

15. Mystery of the Ages advertisement, The Wall Street Journal, March 18, 1997, 3.

16. Worldwide Church of God, “Behind the Work,” Fall Festival Film, 1985.

17. Herbert W. Armstrong, Co-worker letter, September 12, 1985, 1.

18. Joseph W. Tkach, Co-worker letter, part 2, January 16, 1986, 2.

19. Joseph W. Tkach, “He Remembered You,” The Plain Truth, November/December 1986, 1.

20. Ibid., 1, 4.

21. Herbert W. Armstrong, Presentation of Mystery of the Ages to the sophomore class, Ambassador College, September 9, 1985.

22. Mystery of the Ages advertisement, The Philadelphia Trumpet, January 1997, back cover.

23. Gerald Flurry, Sermon, Edmond OK, January 4, 1997.

24. Ibid.

25. Gerald Flurry, “The Largest Audience Possible,” The Philadelphia Trumpet, February 1997, front cover, 1-2.

26. Ibid, 2.

Chapter 17: Battle Lines Drawn

1. Ralph K. Helge, Letter to Gerald Flurry, January 21, 1997.

2. Complaint for Damages and Injunctive Relief Against Copyright Infringement and Related Claims, and for Unjust Enrichment at 4, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-875-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

3. Benjamin Scheibe, Letter to Philadelphia Church of God, February 11, 1997, 1.

4. Terry Moyer, Letter to Benjamin D. Scheibe, February 12, 1997.

5. Application for TRO Transcript of Proceedings at 4, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-875-JSL (C.D. Cal. recorded February 18, 1997).

6. Id. at 5.

7. Id. at 22.

8. Id. at 12.

9. Id. at 22.

10. Complaint for Damages and Injunctive Relief Against Copyright Infringement and Related Claims, and for Unjust Enrichment at 2, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-875-JSL (C.D. Cal. February 10, 1997)

11. Deposition of Ralph Helge at 23-24, 30, 45, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

12. Herbert W. Armstrong, “Congress of leading ministers hears defined and reemphasized spiritual organization of church,” The Worldwide News, March 6, 1981, 8.

13. Ibid.

14. Deposition of Ralph Helge at 104, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

15. Id. at 109.

16. Id. at 120.

17. Id. at 125.

18. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 184-85.

19. Motion for Preliminary Injunction For Copyright Infringement and Brief in Support at 3, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CIV-97-0299 M (W.D. Okla. filed March 24, 1997).

20. Id. at 6.

21. Id.

22. Mystery of the Ages advertisement, Los Angeles Times, March 18, 1997, 14.

23. Ibid.

24. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 203.

Chapter 18: Round One: PCG

1. Ex Parte Application of Defendant Philadelphia Church of God To Transfer Venue at 1, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CIV-97-0299-M (W.D. Okla. filed March 24, 1997).

2. Worldwide Church of God, Inc.’s Brief in Opposition to Defendant’s Application to Transfer Venue at 1, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CIV-97-0299-M (W.D. Okla. filed March 24, 1997).

3. Answer and Counterclaim of Defendant Philadelphia Church of God at 9, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CIV-97-0299-M (W.D. Okla. filed March 24, 1997).

4. Plaintiff’s Motion to Dismiss and Supporting Brief at 4, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CIV-97-0299-M (W.D. Okla. filed March 24, 1997).

5. Worldwide Church of God, Minutes of the Board of Directors, April 2, 1997, 5.

6. Stephen Flurry, “Lying Words,” The Philadelphia Trumpet, November 1997, 20.

7. Greg Albrecht, E-mail to Ronnie Tallie, July 7, 1997.

8. Notice of Motion and Motion of Plaintiff Worldwide Church of God for Partial Summary Judgment at 7, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. April 20, 1999).

9. Id. at 21.

10. 17 U.S.C. § 107.

11. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 22, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

12. Id. at 28.

13. Id. at 30-31.

14. Deposition of Gregory Albrecht at 114, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

15. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 48, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

16. Worldwide Church of God, Minutes of the Advisory Council of Elders of the Church of God an Unincorporated Association, December 4, 1998, 5.

17. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 22.

18. Ibid., 15-16, 22.

19. Ruth Tucker, “From the Fringe to the Fold,” Christianity Today, July 15, 1996, 27.

20. Worldwide Church of God, Minutes of the Advisory Council of Elders of the Church of God an Unincorporated Association, December 4, 1998, 5.

21. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 98.

22. Worldwide Church of God, Minutes of the Advisory Council of Elders of the Church of God an Unincorporated Association, December 4, 1998, 7-8.

23. Motion for Preliminary Injunction at 4-5, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

24. Id. at 8.

25. Id.

26. Order and Judgment Denying Plaintiff’s Motion for Partial Summary Judgment and Motion for Preliminary Injunction and Granting Defendant’s Motion for Summary Adjudication at 2, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

27. Gerald Flurry, Sermon, Edmond OK, February 13, 1999.

28. Gerald Flurry, “Victory in Court!” The Philadelphia Trumpet, March/April 1999, 1.

Chapter 19: Round Two: WCG

1. Deposition of Ralph Helge at 30, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

2. Appellant’s Opening Brief at 6, 22, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, 227 F.3d 1110 (9th Cir. 2000) (nos. 99-55850, 99-55934, 99-56005).

3. Id. at 43.

4. Id.

5. Appellee’s Answering Brief at 7, 39-40, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, 227 F.3d 1110 (9th Cir. 2000) (nos. 99-55850, 99-55934, 99-56005).

6. Id. at 26.

7. Id. at 33.

8. Partial Transcript of Oral Arguments on Dec. 6, 1999, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, 227 F.3d 1110 (9th Cir. 2000) (No. 99-55850).

9. Literature Coordination Report 21, December 2, 1988, 1.

10. Joseph W. Tkach, Pastor General’s Report, February 14, 1989, 1.

11. Worldwide Church of God, Minutes of the Advisory Council of Elders of the Church of God an Unincorporated Association, December 4, 1998, 7.

12. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 203.

13. Matthew 7:20.

14. Partial Transcript of Oral Arguments on Dec. 6, 1999, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, 227 F.3d 1110 (9th Cir. 2000) (No. 99-55850).

15. Id.

16. Id.

17. Id.

18. Id.

19. Id.

20. Colossians 1:26.

21. Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, 227 F.3d 1110, 1113 (9th Cir. 2000) cert. denied, 532 U.S. 958 (2001).

22. Appellant’s Opening Brief at 7, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, Inc., 227 F.3d 1110 (9th Cir. 2000) (nos. 99-55850, 99-55934, 99-56005).

23. Worldwide Church of God, v. Philadelphia Church of God, 227 F.3d 1110, 1118 (9th Cir. 2000) cert. denied, 532 U.S. 958 (2001).

24. Id.

25. Id. At 1118-19

26. Matthew 23:23.

27. Worldwide Church of God, v. Philadelphia Church of God, 227 F.3d 1110, 1119 (9th Cir. 2000) cert. denied, 532 U.S. 958 (2001).

28. Id. At 1122.

29. Worldwide Church of God, v. Philadelphia Church of God, 227 F.3d 1110, 1122 (9th Cir. 2000) (Brunetti, C. J., dissenting) cert. denied, 532 U.S. 958 (2001).

30. Id. at 1124.

31. Id. at 1124-1125.

32. Gerald Flurry, Sermon, Edmond OK, September 23, 2000.

33. Ibid.

34. Ralph K. Helge, “Court rules in favor of WCG in copyright infringement case,” The Worldwide News, October 2000.

35. Ralph K. Helge, “Court denies PCG plea in copyright case,” The Worldwide News, December 2000.

36. Ibid.

37. Ibid.

38. To be heard again, at least one judge had to step forward and call for a vote among all 27. If that happened, 14 of the 27 judges (a simple majority) must then vote in favor of hearing the case again. Assuming it got that far, an 11-judge panel would then be selected randomly from among the 27 to hear the case again. From there, a majority ruling would overturn the decision.

39. Gerald Flurry, sermon, Edmond OK, September 23, 2000.

40. Ibid.

Chapter 20: Counterclaim to the Rescue

1. “Our Christian Duty,” The Philadelphia Trumpet, November 2000, front cover, 5.

2. The United States and Britain in Prophecy advertisement, The Philadelphia Trumpet, January 2001, 14-15.

3. The Missing Dimension in Sex advertisement, The Philadelphia Trumpet, February 2001, 14-15.

4. Bill Stough, “Mystery of the Ages: WCG and PCG settle after six years of bitter battle over HWA book,” The Journal, March 31, 2003, 1.

5. Bill Stough, “WSJ Reporter says suit story one of a kind,” The Journal, February 28, 2001.

6. Jess Bravin, “Bad Tithings: Sect Disavows Tenets, And Woe to Him Who Printeth Them Anyway,” The Wall Street Journal, February 21, 2001, A1.

7. Bill Stough, “The Wall Street Journal gives WCG-PCG Mystery of the Ages story wide front-page play,” The Journal, February 28, 2001.

8. “Pastor General comments on Wall Street Journal article,” The Worldwide News, April 2001.

9. Bill Stough, “The Wall Street Journal gives WCG-PCG Mystery of the Ages story wide front-page play,” The Journal, February 28, 2001.

10. The Harvard Law Review, April 2001, 1807.

11. Ibid., 1810-11.

12. Ibid., 1810.

13. Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God at 26, 532 U.S. 958 (2001).

14. Deposition of Gregory Albrecht at 169, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. April 20, 1999).

15. Greg Albrecht, E-mail to Ronnie Tallie, July 7, 1997.

16. Worldwide Church of God, Minutes of the Board of Directors, June 19, 2001.

17. Matthew H. Morgan, Letter to Gerald Flurry, October 19, 2001, 1.

18. Ibid., 1-2.

19. Allan Browne, Letter to Mark Helm, October 31, 2001.

20. Order at 19, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. entered Nov. 15, 2001).

Chapter 21: The Infamous Preface

1. Gerald Flurry, Letter to Matthew H. Morgan, March 14, 2002, 2.

2. Ibid.

3. Matthew H. Morgan, Letter to Gerald Flurry, April 8, 2002, 1.

4. Ibid, 2.

5. Gerald Flurry, Sermon, Edmond OK, April 6, 2002.

6. Dennis Leap, “Continuing to Fight,” The Philadelphia Trumpet, February 2002, 27.

7. Matthew H. Morgan, Letter to Gerald Flurry, April 8, 2002, 2.

8. Worldwide Church of God, Intended preface to the e-publishing works, 2002, 1.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

11. 2 Corinthians 4:4.

12. Revelation 12:9.

13. 1 Timothy 2:4; 2 Peter 3:9.

14. John 3:16.

15. Worldwide Church of God, Intended preface to the e-publishing works, 2002, 3.

16. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 130-31.

17. Worldwide Church of God, Intended preface to the e-publishing works, 2002, 3.

18. David Hulme, Letter of resignation to Joseph Tkach, April 17, 1995, 5.

19. Worldwide Church of God, Intended preface to the e-publishing works, 2002, 2.

20. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to a former member of the Worldwide Church of God, June 29, 1990. The individual’s name was redacted from the letter.

21. Herbert W. Armstrong, The Plain Truth About Healing (Worldwide Church of God, 1979), 65.

22. Worldwide Church of God, Intended preface to the e-publishing works, 2002, 3.

Chapter 22: Offensive Warfare

1. Gerald Flurry, Letter to PCG lawyers, June 11, 2002.

2. Worldwide Church of God, Minutes of The Advisory Council of Elders of the Church of God an Unincorporated Association, December 4, 1998, 6-7.

3. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 320, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

4. Id. at 337.

5. Id. at 338.

6. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 121.

7. Ibid., 98.

8. Ibid., 183.

9. Joseph Tkach Jr., Letter to a former member of the Worldwide Church of God, March 16, 1992, 1. The individual’s name was redacted from the letter.

10. Joseph Tkach, Sermon, Pasadena CA, January 18, 1986.

11. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 418, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

12. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 184.

13. Deposition of Joseph Tkach at 453-54, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

14. Id. at 408.

15. Id. at 409.

16. Id. at 475-76.

17. Id. at 476.

18. Id. at 321.

19. Id. at 322.

20. Id.

21. Id. at 323.

22. J. Michael Feazell, The Liberation of the Worldwide Church of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2001), 108-09.

23. Deposition of J. Michael Feazell at 72, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

24. Id. at 75.

25. Id. at 76-77.

26. Id. at 77.

27. Id. at 96.

28. J. Michael Feazell, The Liberation of the Worldwide Church of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2001), 43.

29. Ibid., 42.

30. Ibid., 45.

31. Deposition of J. Michael Feazell at 236-37, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

32. J. Michael Feazell, The Liberation of the Worldwide Church of God (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House, 2001), 107.

33. Deposition of J. Michael Feazell at 230, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

34. Id.

35. Deposition of Ron Kelly at 130, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

36. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 182-83.

37. Ron Kelly, “Principles of Living,” Sermon Scripts S85-33, 1987, 1.

38. Ibid., 2.

39. Deposition of Ron Kelly at 191, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

40. Ron Kelly, “Principles of Living” Sermon Scripts S85-33, 1987, 38.

41. Ronald D. Kelly, “Keeping God’s Feasts Yesterday and Today,” The Good News, September 1985, 14.

42. Ralph K. Helge, “Church faces massive crisis,” The Worldwide News, January 15, 1979, 2.

43. Ibid.

44. Deposition of Ralph Helge at 271, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

45. “Transcript of Mr. Helge’s comments from Aug. 25,” The Worldwide News, September 10, 1979, 8.

46. Deposition of Ralph Helge at 94, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

47. Ralph K. Helge, Letter to Zondervan Publishing, February 16, 2001.

48. Deposition of Ralph Helge at 87, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

49. Id. at 171.

50. Deposition of Bernard William Schnippert at 53, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

51. Id. at 75.

52. Id. at 57.

53. Id. at 79.

54. Id. at 122.

55. Id. at 129-30.

56. Id. at 134.

57. Id. at 139.

58. Id. at 139-40.

Chapter 23: © Philadelphia Church of God

1. Ralph K. Helge, Letter to Bob Ardis, August 13, 2002, 1.

2. Ibid.

3. Mark Helm, Letter to Ralph K. Helge, September 18, 2002.

4. Deposition of Stephen Flurry at 136, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

5. Id. at 137.

6. Gerald Flurry, Feast of Tabernacles sermon, Edmond OK, September 22, 2002.

7. Gerald Flurry, Feast of Tabernacles sermon, Ogden UT, September 27, 2002.

8. Bill Stough, “WCG, to affirm its right, will reprint Mystery book,” The Journal, October 31, 2002, 1.

9. Ibid., 17.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. Transcript of Oral Arguments at 11, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

13. Id. at 12.

14. Crissey Economic Damages Preliminary Report at 2, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS, (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

15. Tentative Minute Order at 19, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306 CAS (C.D. Cal. filed November 27, 2002).

16. Deposition of Bernard William Schnippert at 79, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

17. Tucker Expert Report at 22, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

18. Id. at 22-23.

19. Id. at 9.

20. Ruth Tucker, “From the Fringe to the Fold,” Christianity Today, July 15, 1996.

21. Ibid.

22. Deposition of Ruth Tucker at 38, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

23. Id. at 42.

24. Tucker Expert Report at 22, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-JSL (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

25. Deposition of Ruth Tucker at 169-70. Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. dismissed April 14, 2003).

26. Id. at 81.

27. Id. at 80-81.

28. Id. at 125.

29. Joseph Tkach, Transformed by Truth (Sisters, OR: Multnomah Publishers, 1997), 50.

30. Tentative Minute Order at 24, 26, Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, No. CV-97-5306-CAS (C.D. Cal. entered November 27, 2002).

31. Id.

32. Ralph K. Helge, “WCG litigation settled,” The Worldwide News, April 2003, 16.

33. Greg Albrecht, E-mail to Ronnie Tallie, July 7, 1997.

34. Ralph K. Helge, “WCG to appeal copyright ruling,” The Worldwide News, March 1999, 18.

35. Ralph K. Helge, “Court rules in favor of WCG in copyright infringement case,” The Worldwide News, October 2000.

36. Mark A. Kellner, “Unfair Use Alleged,” Christianity Today, April 23, 2001, 15.

37. Bill Stough, “U.S. Supreme Court denies Philadelphia Church of God’s petition for hearing,” The Journal, April 30, 2001.

38. Marshall Allen, “Church Sells Armstrong’s Works,” Christianity Today, June 2003, 23.

39. Mark A. Kellner, “Unfair Use Alleged,” Christianity Today, April 23, 2001, 15.

40. Phillip Arnn, “Jesus and the Law,” Watchman Expositor, Vol. 10, No. 7, 1993, 17.

41. Marshall Allen, “Church Sells Armstrong’s Works,” Christianity Today, June 2003, 23.

42. Marshall Allen, “Closing the book; Settlement reached over texts,” Pasadena Star-News, March 26, 2003.

43. Ibid.

Chapter 24: “Victory Prophesied”

1. Gerald Flurry, Sermon, Edmond OK, September 23, 2000.

2. Gerald Flurry, “Our Appeal to the Supreme Court,” The Philadelphia Trumpet, March/April 2001, 1.

3. Gerald Flurry, Unveiled At Last: The Royal Book of Revelation (Philadelphia Church of God, 2001), 35.

4. Bill Stough, “Court allows PCG more time in WCG legal wrangle,” The Journal, May 31, 2001.

5. Gerald Flurry, Who Is “That Prophet”? (Philadelphia Church of God, 2001), 86.

6. Ibid., 88.

7. Ibid., 89.

8. Gerald Flurry, The God Family Vision (Philadelphia Church of God, 2001), 98.

9. Ibid., 134.

10. Gerald Flurry, “Habakkuk Reveals the Outcome of Our Court Case,” Royal Vision, September/October 2002, 3.

11. Ibid., 5.

12. Ibid., 13.

13. Gerald Flurry, Feast of Tabernacles sermon, Ogden UT, September 28, 2002.

14. Bill Stough, “Court allows PCG more time in WCG legal wrangle,” The Journal, May 31, 2001.

15. Ralph K. Helge, Letter to Philadelphia Church of God, March 3, 2003.

Chapter 25: Raising the Ruins

1. Gerald Flurry, “Education Filled With Hope,” The Philadelphia Trumpet, August 2000, 1.

2. Ibid., 2.

3. Ibid.

4. Ezra 5:2.

5. Psalms 127:1.

6. Herbert W. Armstrong, Autobiography of Herbert W. Armstrong, Vol. 2 (Pasadena, CA: Worldwide Church of God, 1987), 231-32.

7. Ibid., 232.

8. Herbert W. Armstrong, “and now … Our Own New College!” The Plain Truth, January/February 1947, 8.

9. Ibid., 9.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid., 10.

13. Ibid., 13.

14. Gerald Flurry, Who Is “That Prophet”? (Philadelphia Church of God, 2001), 91.

15. Joseph W. Tkach, “SACS Accredits Ambassador!” The Worldwide News, June 28, 1994, 1.

16. Ron Fraser, Letter to Gerald Flurry, July 25, 1997.

17. Stephen Flurry, Letter to Gerald Flurry, April 18, 1998.

18. Ibid.

19. Joel Hilliker, “PCG Lands 38-Acre Deal,” The Philadelphia News, July/August 2000, 4.

20. Gerald Flurry, Sermon, Edmond OK, September 23, 2000.

21. Ibid.

22. Stephen Flurry, Letter to Gerald Flurry, January 2001.

23. Gerald Flurry, Sermon, Edmond OK, February 17, 2001.

24. Gerald Flurry, Sermon, Edmond OK, February 24, 2000.

25. Herbert W. Armstrong, Autobiography of Herbert W. Armstrong, Vol. 2 (Pasadena, CA: Worldwide Church of God, 1987), 231.

26. Andrew Locher, “Treasurer’s Report: expenditures, donations up,” The Philadelphia News, September 2005, 1.

27. Herbert W. Armstrong, Autobiography of Herbert W. Armstrong, Vol. 2 (Pasadena, CA: Worldwide Church of God, 1987) 282.

28. Gerald Flurry, Sermon, Edmond OK, July 17, 2004.

29. Gary Scott, “Worldwide Church of God leaving Pasadena,” Pasadena Star-News, October 25, 2004.

30. Michael Dattolo, “Headquarters Moves,” The Philadelphia News, April 2006, 1.

31. Gerald Flurry, Sermon, Edmond OK, January 21, 2006.

32. Herbert W. Armstrong, “Here’s Good News!” The Good News, April 1951, 1.

33. Herbert W. Armstrong, United States and Britain in Prophecy (Worldwide Church of God, 1980), 4.

Continue Reading: Index