Europe: The Resurgence of Nationalism!

Europe: The Resurgence of Nationalism!

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As nationalist sentiment intensifies, Europe’s leaders have precious little time to make integration work.

Perhaps it’s a crude way to view it, but the essence of the European Union’s current crisis is captured in the photo of German Olympic discus thrower Robert Harting celebrating his recent gold medal. Take a glance at the photo and look past Harting, his proud smile and taut, powerful core.

Look at the flag.

Thinking …

Thinking …

Notice: Harting isn’t cloaked in the EU flag.

We all know why. It’s because Harting views himself first and foremost as German, not European. In Germany, there’s no doubt 80 million Germans celebrated Harting’s victory as a German accomplishment, not a European accomplishment. The same goes for all the other European athletes and fans in London for the Olympics. No one bats an eye when the Spaniard celebrates by proudly raising the Spanish flag, the Dutchman a Dutch flag, the Englishman a Union flag. Seriously, does anyone sincerely believe Harting ought to toss aside the German national flag, replace it with the EU flag, and then together with 80 million Germans proudly sing the EU national anthem? That would be silly, inappropriate, totally unreasonable.

Yet, when it comes to the far more significant issue of European unification, that’s exactly what European peoples are expected to do.

Even if you’ve only caught 10 minutes of the Olympics, you’ve surely noticed the omnipresence of the flag. London is covered in flags of every size and color, from the national flags of Guam and the Solomon Islands, to Old Glory, to the Union Jack. National flags are painted on the faces of tourists, emblazoned on jerseys, shirts and backpacks, fluttering in stadiums, on cars, and on the backs of beaming medalists. Every European country is represented, from mighty Germany all the way down to Macedonia and Albania. Every European flag, that is, except for the national emblem of the entity that is supposed to unite them all: the European Union.

The photo of Robert Harting captures the essence of the Olympics: that it’s one giant, all-consuming, once-every-four-years celebration of patriotism, of national pride, of the love on one’s own nation.

More than any other event, the Olympic Games is a celebration of pure, untarnished, unchecked, nationalism.

And this is why the EU doesn’t work.

The EU is struggling for the same reason European athletes never proudly fly the EU flag: because the citizens of Europe’s nation-states are unwilling to surrender sovereignty to the EU!

Many analysts lament the fact that Brussels lacks the fiscal authority to deal conclusively with Europe’s debt crisis. It lacks authority because sovereign states have yet to fully relinquish control of national budgets and economies. What’s the cause of the sovereign debt crises? It’s that the euro was created primarily to serve the interests of Europe’s largest economy. What about the riots and protests? The social unrest in Greece is essentially a rebellion against what Greeks consider the subjugation of the national rights and cultural personality of Greeks. (Even though Greeks living within their means would benefit the EU.) The reason Germans choke at the thought of rescuing their southern neighbors is because they fear such measures will jeopardize the health and well-being of the German state, and the German people. (Even though assistance from Germany would likely benefit the EU.)

Ultimately, Europe’s problems are a result of Germans and Greeks and Italians and French simply being human.

This is where politics and philosophy intersect. The primary love of every human is self. The supreme purpose of human life, to people today, is the preservation and promotion of self. First, there’s the local self, the preservation of a person’s mind and body. Then there’s the “empirical self.” The empirical self, as Herbert Armstrong explained, is comprised of “what most closely is owned by the self—as human society would recognize ownership—starting with your own clothing, your home or place of abode, your wife or husband, children, your automobile, your home furniture and furnishings, gadgets, other property located farther away—all those people and things one regards as belonging to him! In one’s mind and heart, they become a part of self.”

In international relations, the preservation and promotion of self manifests itself as Greeks putting Greece first, Germans putting Germany first, and the English putting England first. This is the nature of human beings (at least for now). Ultimately, this inherent selfishness explains the financial mess, the political paralysis, the ongoing struggle for integration.

As long as European states are unable to set aside the national flag and proudly raise the EU flag, long-term, sustained European unification is a pipe dream!

In fact, we should expect the nationalist sentiment to only get worse. This is because setting aside patriotism and pledging allegiance to an EU superstate is easier to do on a full belly, when you have a job, when the economy is growing, your government is stable, and your children’s future looks bright. But when the job (or social welfare) is taken away, when food prices skyrocket, when economic and political uncertainty creep in, the basic urge to serve self is revitalized. There’s nothing like crisis to set ablaze one’s devotion to self—to his physical and mental health, to his family, his town, his city—and tohis nation.

This is exactly what’s happening in Europe. The resurgence of nationalist sentiment is evident within the growing protests and riots, and in the opinion polls showing growing dissatisfaction with the EU. It’s also evident within the revival of far-right and far-left political parties across the Continent. In Greece, the major parties have gone from receiving 70 to 80 percent of the total vote down to around 30 to 40 percent. Nationalist, anti-EU, even pro-Nazi parties, have a formidable presence. In France, National Front’s Marine Le Pen won a record 18 percent of the vote in a recent election. In the Netherlands, Geert Wilders’s Party for Freedom has been gaining steadily, even to the point of toppling the government in April. In Finland, the True Finns party is pushing the government toward Euroskepticism. In Germany, papers like the Bild are bristling with nationalist rhetoric.

There’s no mistaking the reversion to nationalism, warned foreign-policy analyst Ulrich Speck. “Narratives about the euro crisis remain strikingly national, and they are worryingly diverging,” he wrote recently, “Euroskepticism is on the rise. It looks rather as if the limits of integration have been reached.” Last September, George Friedman, ceo of Stratfor, wrote an article in which he explained how the vision of European unity is fast vanishing. He wrote, “[W]hat was inconceivable—theprimacy of the traditional nation-state—is now commonly discussed, and steps to devolve Europe in part or in whole (such as ejecting Greece form the eurozone) are being contemplated.”

He then warned, “[T]his is not a trivial event.

You cannot afford to underestimate the importance of this moment. Europe has not experienced political or financial convulsions of this magnitude since the Second World War. Journalists and historians are noticing some alarming parallels with Europe in the ’30s, the decade during which Hitler hatched the horrors of the 1940s. The idea of Europe calmly and peacefully integrating into a democratic superstate is quickly fading.

Historian and professor Geoffrey Roberts recently warned that the EU crisis and the rise of “ultra-nationalism” could facilitate the rise of a new Hitler!

Last Friday, Il Giornale, a right-wing Italian newspaper owned by Silvio Berlusconi, ran a front-page story titled, “Quarto Reich!” In his editorial, Alessandro Sallusti, the editor in chief of the paper, stated that Italy is “no longer in Europe. It is in the Fourth Reich.” First it was Greece, now the Italian media is comparing modern Germany to Hitler’s Third Reich!

The worse Europe’s financial woes become, the more European peoples will become disillusioned with the idea of European integration. Expect nationalist sentiment to continue to rise, and nationalist politics (anti-immigration, anti-EU) to become more common. EU officials in Brussels, and even many leaders across the Continent, including German Chancellor Angela Merkel, claim they are determined to prevent the EU from dissolving, and keep the dream of integration alive. They are going to have to act fast; the window of opportunity is closing!

Be careful too, of viewing Europe’s debt crisis too intellectually. Right now it may appear that Europe is about to fall apart. Many believe it will become weak and irrelevant. It’s accurate to say that nationalism, human nature’s inherent desire to serve the self, will prevent Europe from ever enjoying long-term, sustained and peaceful integration. But as you watch these events, make sure you take into account Bible prophecy. And Bible prophecy says the turmoil in Europe is actually going to result in the unification of the continent behind the leadership of Germany and the Catholic Church.

How is this possible, especially in the context Europe’s rising nationalism?

Very easily! The Trumpet has always taught that this German-led European superpower—although it will wield terrific power globally—will itself be weakly united and short-lived. In Daniel 2, God compares the bonds that unite this end-time Euro-power to the bonds that unite a structure made of iron and clay. The structure will bond together, but only for a very brief period.

Read too the prophecies in Revelation 13 and 17. In both these chapters, it’s clear that God sanctions the rise of this power. Moreover, these chapters reveal supernatural intervention to facilitate the unification of Europe behind Germany and the Vatican. For example, Revelation 17:12-13 warn explicitly that the nations that form this European entity, termed the “beast,” receive “power as kings one hour with the beast [and] have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast.” Believe it or not, there is a strong, unseen, spiritual dimension to what is currently unfolding in Europe!

If you aren’t up to speed on God’s prophecies about end-time events, especially in Europe, then you need to get up to speed quickly! Time is running out—events are hurtling toward a climactic end. Don’t you want to know what to expect, and even more importantly, how you can respond to the chaos and turmoil unfolding around you? To learn more about end-time events in Europe, read Who or What Is the Prophetic Beast?

How the Oil Boom Is Changing North Dakota

How the Oil Boom Is Changing North Dakota


It’s filling a vital need—but highlighting some wicked greed.

If there are two things America needs now, it’s oil and jobs. North Dakota has both in spades.

But there’s a problem here. And it contains an important spiritual lesson—with an inspiring happy ending.

North Dakota is experiencing the biggest oil rush America has seen in decades. It is at the vanguard of an energy renaissance that has emerged thanks to advancements in resource extraction technology. A geological formation called the Bakken, which lies under parts of Saskatchewan, Montana and North Dakota, holds billions of barrels of now-extractable oil. In North Dakota, an estimated 27 to 45 billion barrels are accessible with today’s technology—out of total reserves of perhaps 900 billion barrels or more. Compare that to the Persian Gulf’s 747 billion barrels of proven oil reserves. Some say this could be the world’s largest oil discovery in more than a generation.

The payoffs are immense. For a country that imports 8.4 million barrels of oil a day—much of it from unfriendly foreign sources—the prospect of abundant homegrown energy is extremely attractive. In just the past year, oil output from North Dakota alone kept some $15 billion within the U.S. It has already pushed North Dakota past Alaska as the second-biggest oil-producing state in the union.

More immediately, as nationwide unemployment remains above 8 percent, North Dakota, with its rate at less than 3 percent, is drawing an exodus of job-seekers. One in every 10 job openings last year were oil jobs. Oil-rig workers earn six-figure salaries; even truck drivers make an average of $70,000.

The needs are huge, and pressing. But there is a downside.

As with anything else where there is a heap of money to be made, greed, self-interest and shortsightedness are creating some terrible side effects.

Western North Dakota’s vast expanses of rolling prairie around the state’s thriving oil zone were once among the most beautiful and picturesque parts of the state. “We had such a magic place,” says Dan Kalil, a third-generation North Dakota property owner and farmer, and now chairman of the Williams County Commission. The oil boom, though, has drastically changed the culture and landscape. Kalil laments, “We are seeing the wholesale industrialization of western North Dakota.”

Now, undulating pumpjacks rise from the prairie. Uninviting, crackerbox communities are popping up. Workers cram into makeshift camps. Unsightly industrial trash is accumulating. Fields are littered with blown-out semi tires, cracked hardhats, orphaned work boots and cigarette butts.

Environmental contaminants specialists respond to an overturned train on March 25, 2010. The specialists work to prevent diesel from running into Turtle Creek, a tributary of the Missouri River in North Dakota.

The oil mecca’s surging production requires transportation, and there aren’t many pipelines. Thus, it must be moved by truck or train. Just in January of this year, 100 new trucking companies started up. Traffic is exploding, and it is overtaxing and destroying a road system built for farm-to-market travel, largely gravel or dirt roads. In one county with only 7,000 residents, oversize and overweight truck traffic caused almost $200 million in road damage. Another county, in exasperation, completely closed its road system to oil trucks.

Western North Dakota has only three rest areas over hundreds of miles, so drivers often toss trash out their windows as they blaze through the region. The ickiest item locals are finding: “trucker bombs”—discarded plastic pop bottles and gallon jugs full of urine. Volunteers who were once enthusiastic about removing trash are grossed out and dwindling in numbers. Landscaping crews have had to equip mowing tractors with cabs so drivers don’t get a toxic shower when they mow over one of these containers.

It’s a disgusting symbol of the myopic self-interest driving so much of this boom: people looking to get all they can, heedless of how it will affect the area in the long term.

RVs parked at one of the many “man camps” established near Tioga, North Dakota.

North Dakota is home to four of America’s 10 fastest-growing counties. The population explosion has created a serious housing shortage. Hotels are overbooked. In the city of Tioga, groups of truckers sleep in their rigs and shower in public bathrooms. The local radio station recently closed shop to convert into a more profitable RV park. The fortunate few who can find lodging in Tioga pay rents that rival those of major cities, topping $1,200 a month for a two-bedroom unit. In Williston, median home prices doubled over four years. Many families end up living in cheap, trashy housing.

Oil companies are filling the housing void with “man camps,” temporary lodgings that can be trucked in and out of the area. In New Town, one trailer park where some 90 families have lived for decades was sold to new owners, who doubled the rents and sent eviction notices to residents in order to make room for oil workers.

Schools are overwhelmed with new students. Daycare centers have closed their waiting lists; some of them don’t even answer the phone anymore.

Having so many young men without families in such close quarters has led to problems. In towns with strip clubs, strippers can earn big money; they say most of their customers are married men who moved to North Dakota without their families. In many areas, crime is soaring. In the Southwest Judicial District, felony cases jumped 85 percent between 2006 and 2011. Dickinson, a town of nearly 19,000, saw assaults significantly jump beginning in 2008. Longtime residents lament having to lock their doors for the first time.

In situ burning at a crude oil spill on a wetland in Mountrail County, North Dakota, on March 31, 2010.

There are also environmental concerns. One problem with the fracking process is the tremendous volume of water—a precious commodity in its own right—that it converts into unusable waste. (Robert Morley wrote about this last March.) “North Dakota’s regulations do set guidelines for the disposal of waste … [but] there aren’t enough inspectors to keep watch, and residents frequently complain of waste disposal, flaring, and small spills or leaks,” reported the Washington Post. “Oil and saline water spills, while usually small, are frequent, and the state lacks the manpower, and perhaps the inclination, to crack down.”

“We all need the oil. We all drive cars. We all heat our homes,” the Post quoted one rancher saying. But, he said, “the state is letting us down. They all have dollar signs in their eyes. They have the regulations on the books, but they are not enforcing them.”

Dollar signs in the eyes. “At 11.5 percent of every dollar per barrel of oil going to the state, the state is reaping the benefits of this boom,” said Kalil. “There’s not much interest in slowing that down.”

The love of money is the root of terrible evil, said the Apostle Paul.

In this case, the needs are huge, and pressing, and there is much that could be of tremendous help to America. But the way of get always comes with a steep downside.

North Dakota’s oil boom squarely illustrates many problems endemic to our world that stem from unchecked human nature. As the Prophet Isaiah foretold, “The earth is drooping, withering … and the sky wanes with the earth; for earth has been polluted by the dwellers on its face” (Isaiah 24:4; Moffatt).

Thankfully, though, Isaiah also spoke of a time coming—very soon—when God would intervene to deliver mankind from these problems. The first thing God will do is rid human society of the influence of the devil (Revelation 20:2) and thus begin to purge mankind of his evil, selfish nature. People will then be taught God’s laws under Christ’s rule (Isaiah 2:3-4).

The revolution this will create will have several wonderful effects. Among them: universal prosperity without greed; the discovery and widespread use of clean, non-polluting energy sources; a flourishing of the world’s ecosystem; and inviting, livable cities with strong families at their heart.

Look at the problems that result when man tries to solve his problems without God—and the need for that world to arrive is abundantly clear.

Harvard Psychologist: How About Tutoring Instead of Pills?

Harvard Psychologist: How About Tutoring Instead of Pills?


Harvard psychologist Jerome Kagan said in an August 2 Spiegel interview that the greed of pharmaceutical companies and mental health workers has prompted them to incorrectly diagnose millions of children with mental illnesses.

In the last 50 years, the number of diagnosed cases of attention deficit disorders and chronic depression has skyrocketed, especially among minorities and lower income socioeconomic groups. While mental disorders in children were virtually unknown in the 1960s, official sources today label one in eight American children as mentally ill.

Kagan says the seismic increase wasn’t the result of an upsurge in psychological illnesses, but of a dangerous shift in the way experts label behavioral problems: “We have a 7-year-old child who is bored in school and disrupts classes. Back then, he was called lazy. Today, he is said to suffer from adhd (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). That’s why the numbers have soared.”

Kagan calls adhd—which 5.4 million American children have been diagnosed with—“an invention” of experts in his field: “Every child who’s not doing well in school is sent to see a pediatrician, and the pediatrician says: ‘It’s adhd; here’s Ritalin.’ In fact, 90 percent of these 5.4 million kids don’t have an abnormal dopamine metabolism. The problem is, if a drug is available to doctors, they’ll make the corresponding diagnosis.”

A second epidemic rapidly multiplying among children is depression.

In 1987, one out of 400 American adolescents was prescribed anti-depressants. In 2002, the number had leaped to one out of 40. Kagan says this sharp increase is “simply because the pills are available.” Kagan says that while there are some chronically depressed young people who are legitimately mentally ill, authorities should “look not just at the symptoms, but also at the causes.”

Kagan also addressed the topic of bipolar disorder, which around a million Americans under the age of 19 are said to suffer from today. This is up from virtually zero in the 1960s. “A group of doctors at Massachusetts General Hospital just started calling kids who had temper tantrums bipolar,” Kagan said. “They shouldn’t have done that. But the drug companies loved it because drugs against bipolar disorders are expensive. That’s how the trend was started. It’s a little like in the 15th century, when people started thinking someone could be possessed by the devil or hexed by a witch.”

He says the alternative to giving psychoactive drugs to children with behavioral abnormalities is simply to tutor them. “Who’s being diagnosed with adhd? Children who aren’t doing well in school. It never happens to children who are doing well in school. So what about tutoring instead of pills?”

Kagan is quick to clarify that not all mental illnesses are an invention of the pharmaceutical industry. “[T]here are people who suffer from schizophrenia, who hear their great-grandfather’s voice, for example, or who believe the Russians are shooting laser beams into their eyes. … There are people who, either for prenatal or inherited reasons, have serious vulnerabilities in their central nervous system that predispose them to … disorders. We should distinguish these people from all the others who are anxious or depressed because of poverty, rejection, loss or failure. The symptoms may look similar, but the causes are completely different.”

The views Kagan has expressed are nothing new to the Trumpet, but his stance is significant because he is one of the world’s leading authorities in child development. A 2002 ranking of the 20th century’s 100 most eminent psychologists published by a group of American academics placed Kagan in 22nd place, even above Ivan Pavlov and Carl Jung.

Kagan is no fringe practitioner, and his suggestion to prescribe tutoring in place of meds is refreshing because chemical combinations can’t replace child care. Millions of families have turned to drugs out of desperation, but they are treating symptoms and ignoring causes.

At one point in the interview, Kagan broadened the problem’s scope, saying, “[T]hat is the history of humanity: Those in authority believe they’re doing the right thing, and they harm those who have no power.”

Educator Herbert W. Armstrong wrote prolifically on this topic, explaining that scientific human reasoning has become contemporary society’s latest “messiah.” Leading scientists are often viewed as saviors for every social, moral and societal problem, but evidence is amassing which reveals that even the most advanced combinations of chemical, physical, physiological, psychiatric, pharmacological or psychosocial research cannot train the mind or build character in people. That is because, in spite of evolution-based hypotheses, the human mind is not a collection of organic tissue and chemicals. To learn more about the human mind and how children can attain physical, social and mental health, read What Science Can’t Discover About the Human Mind.

‘The Fourth Reich’ Has Arrived

‘The Fourth Reich’ Has Arrived

DANI POZO/AFP/Getty Images

The Fourth Reich has taken over Europe, according to Il Giornale, a right-wing Italian newspaper. In a headlining story last Friday, Alessandro Sallusti, the editor in chief for the paper, asserted that Italy is “no longer in Europe. It is in the Fourth Reich.”

These bold comments come in the wake of recent non-productive talks between Italy, Spain and the European Central Bank (ecb) over fiscal aid for the two struggling members of the eurozone. ecb President Mario Draghi has put pressure on Italy and Spain to formally apply for aid from the bank before any steps are taken to provide assistance. If either nation were to make a formal request, strict conditions would be enforced by the ecb in exchange for buying its bonds—strict conditions that would essentially put either nation at the mercy of the German-influenced ecb.

Italian Prime Minister Mario Monti has openly criticized the bank, stating in an interview with Der Spiegel, “… I told Chancellor Merkel of increasing resentment here in parliament—against the EU, against the euro, against the Germans and sometimes against the chancellor herself. That, though, is a problem that goes beyond just Germany and Italy. The tensions that have accompanied the eurozone in recent years are showing signs of a psychological dissolution of Europe.”

Il Giornale also dished out criticism for Monti for not standing up to Germany more in the midst of the euro crisis, vividly comparing him to Neville Chamberlain, the British prime minister infamous for hastily declaring “peace for our time” after signing the Munich Agreement and the Anglo-German Declaration with Adolf Hitler.

Germany is not making many friends at the moment, but frankly, it doesn’t need to. The euro is crumbling, Italy is in trouble, and there is only one place Europe can turn to. If Germany chooses to bail out indebted Europe, expect Germany to exact its full pound of flesh in return—and that means economic, if not more political, control. Although a crumbling Europe is a negative for Germany’s economy, Germany is taking full advantage of the crisis to consolidate its control over the Continent.

Falklands Dispute: British Ships Banned From Buenos Aires

Falklands Dispute: British Ships Banned From Buenos Aires


British sovereignty in the Falklands faces yet another challenge from Argentina. Lawmakers in Buenos Aires province have passed a bill that will ban British ships from docking in any of its ports. Buenos Aires is the largest province in Argentina and houses the country’s most important ports.

The bill is the latest in a series of provocations by Argentina in the run-up to the 30th anniversary of the Falklands War. The bill is designed to hinder British oil exploration in the islands. It also illustrates Argentine hostility to Britain, since most ships en route to the Falklands do not stop in Argentine ports.

Ships flying the Falklands flag are already banned from ports in Argentina and the other nations making up the South American trading bloc Mercosur. Last year, two Falklands-bound Norwegian ships, mistaken for British, sparked mass protests when they docked in the port of La Plata near Buenos Aires.

The bill was sponsored by Patricia Cubria, a deputy from President Cristina Kirchner’s Front for Victory coalition. It was nicknamed “Gaucho Rivero” after Antonio “Gaucho” Rivero, the Argentine cowboy who led an uprising against the British in the Falkland Islands in 1833. Of Rivero, Cubria said, “He fought so that the Argentine flag could fly in the Falklands.”

The British foreign office responded by expressing its concerns about Argentina’s political belligerence. A spokesperson said:

The UK remains concerned about recent Argentine measures designed to prevent access for British and other international vessels seeking to enter Argentine ports. Ministers have made clear in the past that the UK wants to have a constructive relationship with Argentina, but this will not be at the expense of the rights of the Falkland Islanders to choose their sovereignty and to develop their economy.The UK will take all steps necessary to ensure that the Falklands economy is not undermined by unilateral measures taken by Argentina.

Argentina is continuing to undermine British influence in the Falklands. Thirty years ago, when Argentina attempted to fly its flag in the Falklands, Britain responded with swift, decisive action to defend its territory. Today, however, despite Britain’s tough talk, it does not have the naval power necessary to defend the islands. Bible prophecy shows that Britain will eventually lose the Falklands. For more insight, read “Changing the Guard” in our free booklet He Was Right.

Syrian PM Hijab Abandons Assad for Opposition

Syrian PM Hijab Abandons Assad for Opposition


Recently appointed Syrian Prime Minister Riyad Hijab defected to the opposition forces this week, making him one of the highest profile deserters from President Bashar Assad’s government since fighting began.

Syrian state-run media announced that he had been fired, but the truth came out in a statement made Monday.

In a formal statement read by a spokesperson, Hijab said, “I announce today my defection from the killing and terrorist regime and I announce that I have joined the ranks of the freedom and dignity revolution. I announce that I am from today a soldier in this blessed revolution.”

The high-profile defection is simply further proof that the Assad regime is crumbling and that a new government will soon transition into power, Jay Carney, the White House press secretary, asserted on Monday.

It has been reported that Hijab and his family have fled to Jordan. Jordanian state media at first denied that allegation, but official statements from Hijab’s spokesman, Mohammed Otari, have confirmed that he did in fact flee to Jordan.

Hijab’s defection comes at a time of immense turmoil. President Assad is trying to show that he is still in control, but he is coming under increasing pressure from Turkey and Saudi Arabia to cave to the opposition. Surrounding states are verbally supporting the arming of the Syrian rebels and Turkey has shown support by sending troops and weapons to the Syrian border.

The fighting between the Syrian forces and the Free Syrian Army has claimed over 18,000 lives already, and there is no sign that the violence will lessen in the near future.

Watch for the increased weakening of Assad’s regime, a new Syrian government transitioning into power, and the shift of Syrian allegiance from Iran to Gulf nations, like Saudi Arabia and Turkey, that are wary of Iran’s growing regional power.